Some of the material in is restricted to members of the community. By logging in, you may be able to gain additional access to certain collections or items. If you have questions about access or logging in, please use the form on the Contact Page.
Three experiments were carried out to investigate directed forgetting effect and how emotional factors influence directed forgetting. For all three experiments, the dependent variable was the number of correct answers in memory test. In Experiment 1, two independent variables were employed: instruction (remember/forget) and memory test type (free recall/recognition). In Experiment 2, two independent variables were used: instruction (remember/forget) and emotion type (negative/positive/neutral). In Experiment 3, two independent variables were employed: instruction (remember/forget) and emotion type (negative/positive/neutral). The three studies used negative, positive, and neutral basketball words and pictures. For example, negative scenarios included injury or losing a game, positive scenarios included winning and cheering, and neutral scenario included a daily practice. These were presented in texts and images. The three studies (1) determined the reason of directed forgetting, (2) examined directed forgetting in basketball, and (3) identified how the type of emotions influenced the directed forgetting effect. In conclusion, the studies' findings indicate that (1) the reason of forgetting is insufficient rehearsal, (2) there was directed forgetting effect for both words and pictures, (3) emotional content resists forgetting.