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Repeated experiences are a cornerstone of learning and memory, but to what extent does the benefit of repetition depend upon noticing it? A rich literature exists examining the impact that an original learning experience has on a current experience when recognition of repeated material occurs while a surprisingly limited amount of research has examined the impact on relearning when recognition of repetition fails. Asch (1969) reported that recognition of repetition was necessary to experience a benefit of repeated experiences while the formal memory model Retrieving Effectively from Memory (REM; Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997), incorporating elements of Asch, assumes that an initial experience establishes a memory trace which is added to during a repetition, but only if the repetition accesses the original trace. If the repetition is not noticed, a second memory trace is created. I discuss research exploring the impact of recognition during a subsequent learning experience when the lists are separated by extreme context changes. In two experiments I attempted a conceptual replication of Asch and show that while recognition may not be necessary to receive a benefit of repeated information, there is a greater benefit during relearning when recognition of repetition occurs.