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Nanotechnology is a new frontier for the advancement of science and technology. Nanomaterials are playing a crucial role and that they will continue to do so is beyond doubt. They are being used in electronic, magnetic, optical and catalytic applications where the unique interactions of nanostructured materials with electromagnetic radiation is of great benefit. While significant progress in understanding fundamental nanoparticle - electromagnetic radiation interactions has been made, and has improved practical technology applications, there is plenty left to be fully understood. This dissertation aims to further probe nanoparticle - electromagnetic radiation interactions and unveil details previously not known. More specifically, this dissertation looks at how microwaves can aid in the synthesis of anisotropic magnetic nickel nanoparticles, how small sized nanoparticles can be used in tuning the dielectric properties of polymer-nanocomposites, and how core-shell nanoparticles can be used for high quenching of fluorescence red dyes. An overview of chapters section that provides a more detailed content summary for each chapter is found at the end of the introduction chapter.