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In socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), mating induces three primary types of behavior; namely, partner preference, selective aggression toward conspecific strangers, and bi-parental care, making this rodent an ideal model system to study sociality and underlying neurochemical mechanisms associated with monogamous mating strategies. Here, we highlight species differences in neurochemical receptor distributions associated with mating experience leading to the establishment of stable pair-bonds. Specifically, we illustrate the role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in programming the formation and maintenance of monogamous bonds and describe the role of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin in the regulation of selective aggression. We conclude by discussing recent molecular work in voles and emphasize the importance of this rodent for future research in the behavioral neurobiology field.