Some of the material in is restricted to members of the community. By logging in, you may be able to gain additional access to certain collections or items. If you have questions about access or logging in, please use the form on the Contact Page.
An article for controlling the attachment and growth of cells on a surface of the article, and a method for the use of the article is provided. The article comprises a substratum having a surface and a film on the surface, the film comprising a network of a net positively charged composition and a net negatively charged composition, wherein the net positively charged composition comprises a net positively charged polyelectrolyte or the net negatively charged composition comprises a net negatively charged polyelectrolyte, and the net positively charged polyelectrolyte or the net negatively charged polyelectrolyte contain (i) a polymer repeat unit having at least two fluorine atoms, or (ii) a polymer repeat unit having a zwitterion group. The method comprises contacting the article with living tissue, living organisms, or with water in an aqueous system comprising living organisms.