Surface Modification for Improved Design and Functionality of Nanostructured Materials and Devices
Keiper, Timothy David (author)
Xiong, Peng (professor directing dissertation)
Chase, P. Bryant (university representative)
van Winkle, David H. (committee member)
Rikvold, Per Arne (committee member)
Riley, Mark A. (committee member)
Florida State University (degree granting institution)
College of Arts and Sciences (degree granting college)
Department of Physics (degree granting department)
Progress in nanotechnology is trending towards applications which require the integration of soft (organic or biological) and hard (semiconductor or metallic) materials. Many applications for functional nanomaterials are currently being explored, including chemical and biological sensors, flexible electronics, molecular electronics, etc., with researchers aiming to develop new paradigms of nanoelectronics through manipulation of the physical properties by surface treatments. This dissertation focuses on two surface modification techniques important for integration of hard and soft materials: thermal annealing and molecular modification of semiconductors. First, the effects of thermal annealing are investigated directly for their implication in the fundamental understanding of transparent conducting oxides with respect to low resistivity contacts for electronic and optoelectronic applications and the response to environmental stimuli for sensing applications. The second focus of this dissertation covers two aspects of the importance of molecular modification on semiconductor systems. The first of these is the formation of self-assembled monolayers in patterned arrays which leads explicitly to the directed self-assembly of nanostructures. The second aspect concerns the modification of the underlying magnetic properties of the preeminent dilute magnetic semiconductor, manganese-doped gallium arsenide. Tin oxide belongs to a class of materials known as transparent conducting oxides which have received extensive interest due to their sensitivity to environmental stimuli and their potential application in transparent and flexible electronics. Nanostructures composed of SnO2 have been demonstrated as an advantageous material for high performance, point-of-care nanoelectronic sensors, capable of detecting and distinguishing gaseous or biomolecular interactions on unprecedented fast timescales. Through bottom-up fabrication techniques, binary oxide nanobelts synthesized through catalyst-free physical vapor deposition are implemented in the field-effect transistor structure. We have discovered that conductivity is absent in as-grown devices. However, utilizing a process for thermal treatment in vacuum and oxygen environments is found to be instrumental in fabricating field-effect transistors with significant conductivity, up to five orders of magnitude above the as-grown devices, for field-effect transistor application. Further investigation by photoluminescence coupled with the annealing parameters reveals that the likely cause of conductance comes from the reduction of surface defect states in the material. Importantly, the annealed material maintains its response to an applied gate potential showing orders of magnitude switching from the 'off' to the 'on' state. In order to show the practical relevance of our improvements on the SnO₂ material, we show our results for implementing the annealed material in biomolecular sensing experiments to detect the presence of streptavidin and Hepatitis C virus. Surface modification was carried out on oxide-free gallium arsenide (in some cases doped with manganese or zinc) through self-assembly of thiol molecules. First, we investigate the ability to pattern via two complementary micro- and nanopatterning techniques, microcontact printing (μCP) and dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). DPN is a unique lithography tool that allows drawing of arbitrary patterns with a molecular ink on a complementary substrate. It is extremely useful in integration of molecular inks within a pre-defined structure. Here, DPN was used to investigate the diffusion of organic molecules from a point source for both a moving and stationary tip on oxide-free GaAs. The diffusion can be calibrated so that intricate patterns down to tens of nanometers can be arbitrarily drawn on the surface. μCP, a less complicated method for large-scale arrayed patterning, is utilized to investigate the deposition of different thiolated molecular inks on GaAs and (Ga,Mn)As. The patterns deposited by μCP provide the template for directed self-assembly of gold nanoparticles. The systems based on these techniques can be extended to many substrate-molecule-nanostructure systems for an incredible variety of applications. Finally, the thiol-(Ga,Mn)As system is studied to determine the effects of molecular modification on the substrates' magnetic properties via modulation of the hole concentration in the wafer. The results for two molecules, one an electron donor and one an electron acceptor, show opposite trends for modulation of both the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization. We suggest that nanopatterning of electron donor or electron acceptor molecules could lead to the development of reconfigurable nanomagnetic systems in (Ga,Mn)As with potential applications in molecular spintronics or magnetic memory.
March 22, 2017.
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment of the Doctor of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
Peng Xiong, Professor Directing Dissertation; P. Bryant Chase, University Representative; David van Winkle, Committee Member; Per Arne Rikvold, Committee Member; Mark Riley, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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