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This study aimed at examining the dispositional effects of the hot hand and psychological momentum beliefs on mental states such as self-efficacy, perception of control, and cohesion. One hundred and seventy-six male and female participants who have athletic experience in basketball, volleyball, or baseball (NCAA, club, or intramural) were surveyed. Revised versions of hot hand and psychological momentum questionnaires from past studies were used to measure a participant's level of belief in the hot hand and psychological momentum, respectively. The Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSE) was used to measure self-efficacy, a revised version of the Self-Control Scale was used to measure perceptions of control, and the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) was used to measure team cohesion. The aim of this study was to examine whether athletes who have strong beliefs in the hot hand and psychological momentum have significantly different levels of self-efficacy, perceptions of control, and team cohesion. Also, it was examined whether skill level was related to any differences in beliefs. Results indicated that athletes with stronger beliefs in the hot hand exhibited significantly higher levels of self-efficacy. Belief in psychological momentum did not predict any of the dependent variables Also, high skilled athletes showed higher self-efficacy levels than low skilled athletes, and low skilled athletes showed higher levels of team cohesion than high skilled athletes. The results suggest that belief in the hot hand can be considered an adaptive belief that can potentially affect self-efficacy in a positive manner.
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