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Within RTI models, Tier 1 instruction represents an important foundation for the prevention and remediation of reading difficulties, but has largely been ignored in previous RTI research. This study examined the amount, type, and quality of core reading instruction provided to fourth-grade struggling readers. Further, this research sought to examine whether specific elements of Tier 1 and/or supplemental reading instruction received, predicted growth in fourth grade students' reading skills. A total of 110 students, receiving school-based reading instruction in 22 classrooms, in four school districts located in two states/sites participated. Tier 1 reading instruction was observed and coded for instructional dimensions, including reading components, grouping, and quality. In general, reading comprehension and vocabulary were the most prevalent components of instruction, while limited time was allocated to word-level reading skills. Several significant differences in time allocated to overall instruction and components of instruction were noted between sites. Overall, there were few unique Tier 1 instructional predictors of student achievement at the end of the year, and the best predictor of student performance at the end of fourth grade was initial status in the fall. Further, students receiving supplemental reading instruction outperformed those students receiving only Tier 1 on measures of oral reading fluency. Implications for classroom instruction and future research are discussed.
reading instruction, response to intervention, upper elementary
Date of Defense
October 30, 2014.
A Dissertation submitted to the School of Teacher Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
Jeanne Wanzek, Professor Directing Dissertation; Young-Suk Kim, Committee Member; Barbara Foorman, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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