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We develop partial differential equation methods with well-posed boundary conditions to price average strike options and swing options in the energy market. We use the energy method to develop boundary conditions that make a two space variable model of Asian options well-posed on a finite domain. To test the performance of well-posed boundary conditions, we price an average strike call. We also derive new boundary conditions for the average strike option from the put-call parity. Numerical results show that well-posed boundary conditions are working appropriately and solutions with new boundary conditions match the similarity solution significantly better than those provided in the existing literature. To price swing options, we develop a finite element penalty method on a one factor mean reverting diffusion model. We use the energy method to find well-posed boundary conditions on a finite domain, derive formulas to estimate the size of the numerical domain, develop a priori error estimates for both Dirichlet boundary conditions and Neumann boundary conditions. We verify the results through numerical experiments. Since the optimal exercise price is unknown in advance, which makes the swing option valuation challenging, we use a penalty method to resolve the difficulty caused by the early exercise feature. Numerical results show that the finite element penalty method is thousands times faster than the Binomial tree method at the same level of accuracy. Furthermore, we price a multiple right swing option with different strike prices. We find that a jump discontinuity can occur in the initial condition of a swing right since the exercise of another swing right may force its optimal exercise region to shrink. We develop an algorithm to identify the optimal exercise boundary at each time level, which allows us to record the optimal exercise time. Numerical results are accurate to one cent comparing with the benchmark solutions computed by a Binomial tree method. We extend applications to multiple right swing options with a waiting period restriction. A waiting period exists between two swing rights to be exercised successively, so we cannot exercise the latter right when we see an optimal exercise opportunity within the waiting period, but have to wait for the first optimal exercise opportunity after the waiting period. Therefore, we keep track of the optimal exercise time when pricing each swing right. We also verify an extreme case numerically. When the waiting time decreases, the value of M right swing option price increases to the value of M times an American option price as expected.
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Mathematics in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
David Kopriva, Professor Directing Thesis; Fred Huﬀer, University Representative; Bettye Anne Case, Committee Member; Craig Nolder, Committee Member; Xiaoming Wang, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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