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Studies have suggested that diabetes is a stronger risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) in women than in men. We present a meta-analysis of person-level data from 42 cohort studies in which diabetes, CHD mortality and potential confounders were available and a minimum of 75 CHD deaths occurred. These studies followed up 77,863 men and 84,671 women aged 42 to 73 years on average from the US, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and the UK. Individual study prevalence rates of self-reported diabetes mellitus at baseline ranged between less than 1% in the youngest cohort and 15.7% (males) and 11.1% (females) in the NHLBI CHS study of the elderly. CHD death rates varied between 2% and 20%. A meta-analysis was performed in order to calculate overall hazard ratios (HR) of CHD mortality among diabetics compared to non-diabetics using Cox Proportional Hazard models. The random-effects HR associated with baseline diabetes and adjusted for age was significantly higher for females 2.65 (95% CI: 2.34, 2.96) than for males 2.33 (95% CI: 2.07, 2.58) (p=0.004). These estimates were similar to the random-effects estimates adjusted additionally for serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and current smoking status: females 2.69 (95% CI: 2.35, 3.03) and males 2.32 (95% CI: 2.05, 2.59) . They also agree closely with estimates (odds ratios of 2.9 for females and 2.3 for males) obtained in a recent meta-analysis of 50 studies of both fatal and nonfatal CHD but not based on person-level data. This evidence suggests that diabetes diminishes the female advantage. An additional analysis was performed on race. Only 14 cohorts were analyzed in the meta-analysis. This analyses showed no significant difference between the black and white cohorts before (p=0.68) or after adjustment for the major CHD RFs (p=0.88). The limited amount of studies used may lack the power to detect any differences.
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Statistics in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
Daniel McGee, Professor Directing Thesis; Myra Hurt, University Representative; Debdeep Pati, Committee Member; Debajyoti Sinha, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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