Second Order Centers and Regional Integration in the Late Bronze Age Aegean
Liko, Sarah M. (author)
Schepartz, Lynne A. (professor directing dissertation)
Pullen, Daniel J. (university representative)
Doran, Glen H. (committee member)
Marrinan, Rochelle A. (committee member)
Department of Anthropology (degree granting department)
Florida State University (degree granting institution)
This dissertation examines strategies of regional integration from the perspective of second order centers (SOCs). These sites are defined in socio-political terms as the second tier within an administrative hierarchy of a regional system. The goals of this study are to develop an archaeological definition of SOCs and to use this information to model processes of regional integration. This work links our theoretical knowledge about the roles of SOCs in state-level societies to actual archaeological data, putting archaeological theory into practice. To evaluate regional integration from the perspective of these sites, it is necessary to formulate an archaeological definition of SOCs. The data collected for this study are used to develop and enhance this definition and to model processes of regional integration. This first goal of this study is achieved by performing an evaluation of potential second order centers in the Mycenaean regions of Pylos and Mycenae. The definition states that a SOC is (1) a settlement that (2) shares architectural forms, construction methods, and/or construction materials with a primary center, has (3) administrative control over economic activities (craft production), and (4) participates within a regional network as a node of trade. Several sites in each region meet the criteria set out by the SOC archaeological definition. In total, nine probable or possible SOCs were found in the Pylos region and seven in the Mycenae region. This research develops a model of regional integration, the Composite Model of Regional Integration, that is dynamic and consists of two strategies. The competition strategy is built on the idea that increasingly intensive rivalries between sites that are at similar sociopolitical levels leads to a situation in which the sites become linked together. Emergent elites at each site rely on the competitive system for their high statuses and as a conduit for prestige goods from intra- and inter-regional trade networks. In this way, competition between sites leads to a regional system of interconnected sites and elites that are reliant on the system and each other to maintain their positions. The imposition strategy follows a more conflict driven perspective, in which primary centers forcibly incorporate sites to act as regional subcenters. This study finds that both strategies were used in each Mycenaean region, and that there is a temporal component to their utilization. In general, the competition strategy is more clear in the Mycenae region, while the imposition strategy is more clear in the Pylos region. This research has implications for archaeological research in multiple areas of the world. In order to create viable social, political, and economic models it is important to focus on the various elements of a polity. SOCs represent a critical part of overall administrative and economic systems within state-level societies. A detailed study of SOCs contributes to our knowledge of this particular class of settlements as well as to our understanding of state development.
competition, imposition, Mycenaean, regional integration, second order center, state development
December 2, 2011.
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Anthropology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
Lynne A. Schepartz, Professor Directing Dissertation; Daniel J. Pullen, University Representative; Glen H. Doran, Committee Member; Rochelle A. Marrinan, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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