Five Case Studies: 1. CT Scanning with Hearing Impaired Children 2. Music Therapy for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Stroke Patients 3. Music Therapy for Non-Patients in a Hospital Setting 4. Review of Pain Assessment Forms and Their Applicability to Music Therapy 5. Guitar Instruction with a Practicum College Student
In children, as in adults, computed tomography (CT or CAT) scans are an invaluable imaging modality that produces a series of images that can detect many conditions. Like any tool, however, inappropriate use has unique implications for children including a high risk of cancer. Consequently, the fear of anesthesia and sedation along with the high "radiation dose" a child receives during CT scans, makes this diagnostic approach risky and dangerous. Music Therapy can be used as an alternative mean to anesthesia and sedation thus eliminating any side effects the child may have during this process. Since research has shown that hearing impaired children are able to experience music primarily through the senses of touch, by feeling vibrations and also by actually hearing some tones that are within their limited range, this study discusses the potential use of Music Therapy with hearing impaired children during the CT scans. Moreover, the purpose of this study is to: a) give recommendations (materials, techniques) for facilitation of music therapy during this process and b) lists potential songs that can be used during computed tomography. Alzheimer's or otherwise "The Forgotten Disease" is a progressive disorder with no known cause, attacking and slowly stealing the minds of its victims. Symptoms of the disease include memory loss, confusion, impaired judgment, personality changes, disorientation, and loss of language skills. Always fatal, Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of irreversible dementia. Music Therapy had always had a dramatic effect on people with Alzheimer's since "…..music is a battery charger for the brain, and patients will frequently begin to reminisce and verbalize thoughts and feelings in ways thought to be long dormant." This study examines the use of music as a strategy to increase reality orientation and cognitive stimulation. Music Therapy sessions were conducted on an Adult Day Care Facility twice a week of 60 minutes duration, involving elderly people with dementia, post-CVA, Parkinson's, and other diagnosis. A behavioral research design ABAB was utilized (A=baseline, B=treatment). During base live sessions, singing of familiar songs, playing simple rhythmic instruments with background music, playing musical games that enhanced active manipulation of the hands and feet and moving/dancing activities were utilized. During treatment phase, these music activities were connected with calendar events and/or community events to reinforce the goals of the Music Therapy program in the Day Care Facility. Graphic data analysis and clinical observations clearly indicated that the coupling of music with a variety of activities along with calendar events and/or community events increased significantly the participation, smiling, eye contact, verbal feedback, social interaction and reality orientation. In the meantime, agitation, wondering and pacing were noticeably decreased during the sessions. Implications of the results for music therapy in such facilities are discussed. Music therapy is the prescribed use of music and musical interventions in order to restore, maintain, and improve emotional, physical, physiological, and spiritual health and well-being. This exploratory study investigated the utilization of Music Therapy and its effectiveness for non-patients in waiting rooms of a hospital setting. Two waiting rooms were chosen, the Emergency waiting room and the Intensive Care Unit waiting room, after consultation with the head nurse of the hospital. A 30-minute session of live music was taken place twice a week in each waiting room. A repertoire list that included songs from a variety of musical genres, was handed to the subjects who happened to be present at the time of the study. Subjects were encouraged to choose songs they enjoyed listening to. Behavioral data were recorded by an independent observer. Observable on-task verbal behaviors were: singing, choosing songs, conversing with the Music Therapists, making comments about music. Observable on task visual behaviors were: eye-contact, moving feet or hands to music, and dancing. Observable off-task behaviors were: conversing with other people, reading newspaper, watching T.V., talking on the phone or any other incompatible or competing behavior at the interval of the observation. Results indicated that Music Therapy in an environment such as the Emergency room, where patients are also present, is not as effective as in waiting room where only non-patients are there. While overall results of this study were not significant or encouraging, enough variations occurred between the two waiting group populations to warrant further investigation. During the last decade, the use of music as an adjunctive aid to "traditional" medicine has been acknowledged and patients can now take home "sound prescriptions" to assist them in regaining health. An ongoing growing interest on the effects of music in medicine has led institutions and research centers to investigate the impact music has on pain management and pain relief. A press release from the National Institute of Health has found that "music and relaxation can provide more complete relief without the undesired side effects of some pain medications" (Press Release, National Institute of Health, 1999). Despite of fact that music is being utilized in the hospital setting across populations, the author of this study could not find research related to music therapy and pain assessment procedures that identify both problem areas and patient assets for treatment participation and prognosis (Standley, p. 43). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to review clinical pain assessment forms and discuss their applicability to music therapy. Guitar. One of the most alluring and expressive instrument with more applications than any instrument known to mankind. From the sedative sound of the Greek "Kithara" to the atonal sounds of the Flamenco-style Spanish guitar, to the howling solos effortlessly pounded out by George Harrison of the Beatles in the 60s, to the modern Jazz fusion drifting through clubs and concert halls all over the world, there is no instrument as recognized, as versatile, and as expressive as the guitar. The guitar today continues to flourish throughout the globe in its infinite number of applications and styles, growing in popularity and prestige every single year. The value of class-guitar program in schools and colleges is being increasingly recognized throughout the United States. Most colleges have included into their curriculum guitar instruction courses, and students, music or non-music majors, have the opportunity to learn how to play this so popular instrument. For music therapy majors, proficient guitar skills is consider to be the key for successful completion of the music academic curriculum which includes the academic phase and the field-based internship phase, evidencing future successes as a professional in the field of Music Therapy. This study was designed to help an undergraduate music therapy student to successfully meet the requirements and skills needed in guitar while doing a practicum in a hospital setting. Furthermore, this study seek to examine if a relationship exists between guitar skills and the fear of being prepared or having the knowledge, thus being more competent during direct client interaction, hence being an effective music therapist. It was clearly seen that there is a strong relationship between efficient guitar skills, self-enjoyment and being more confident and ready during direct client interaction thus decreasing the fear of failure. Implications of the results are being discussed.
Hearing Impaired and CT scanning, Music Therapy for Non-Patients, Review of Pain Assessment Forms and Their Applicab, Hearing Impaired and CT scanning, Hearing Impaired and CT scanning, Hearing Impaired and CT scanning, Music Therapy with Alzheimers and Parkinsons
December 10, 2003.
A Thesis submitted to the School of Music in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music.
Includes bibliographical references.
Jayne M. Standley, Professor Directing Thesis; Dianne Gregory, Committee Member; Clifford Madsen, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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