The Influence of Perceived Managerial Work Values and Perceived Constructive Organizational Culture on Job Satisfaction of Employees in Sport Organizations
The main purpose of this study is to examine how employee job satisfaction is influenced by perceived managerial work values and perceived constructive organizational culture. Specifically, the current study model provides a conceptual framework describing interrelationships among three types of work values (i.e., Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Social Relations), four dimensions of constructive organizational culture (i.e., Achievement, Self-actualizing, Humanistic-encouraging, and Affiliative), and job satisfaction. Additionally, the author can explain the influence of perceived managerial work values and perceived constructive organizational culture on non-executive employees' job satisfaction by examining a possible mediating effect of perceived constructive organizational culture in the relationships between perceived managerial work values and non-executive employees' job satisfaction. It is expected that non-executive employees of sport organizations influenced by a desirable constructive organizational culture will have positive reflections regarding the organization (e.g., high job satisfaction). Participants are non-executive full-time employees who work at small Korean sport service organizations (e.g., fitness clubs/gyms, martial art clubs, and golf-related facilities). Compared to large organizations, adapting to change is crucial in small organizations (Hill & Stewart, 1999). More specifically, small businesses could be more heavily influenced by situational work conditions and external environment factors (e.g., labor, the economic climate, up/down sizing, government regulations, and a fluctuating marketplace) than large businesses. Thus, scholars frequently mentioned, "Small business owners and managers must have a different outlook and must apply different principles than those ordinarily used by big companies" (Welsh & White, 1981, p. 18). In particular, small businesses in the sport service industry have proven that employees are required to have various job responsibilities and duties. Employees must have thoughts and plans to keep good relationships with their customers/users. Higher customer retention rates, thus, would be the best result of the relationships. It finally causes improved profitability. Importantly, the author only used full-time non-executive employees from the sport industry in South Korea. Compared to Western countries, Korean businesses and employees in collectivistic and hierarchical culture (Hofstede, 1980) could have different management modes, leadership styles, employer/employee relationships, and organizational behavior in general. This study, thus, will be useful to examine organizational cultures and employee attitudes from a different region. The author believes that the use of full-time employees is appropriate for this study and its purposes. Organizational culture has been normally defined as the deep-rooted beliefs and understandings shared by people in the organization (Schein, 1997). Full-time employees can expect long-term employment and a stable work timetable in general so that they might successfully explore their work culture and evaluate their executives' work styles more adequately than different types (e.g., part-time employees and volunteers) of human resources. Based on the results of the structural equation modeling, the fully mediated model performed better statistically than the partially mediated model and no-mediation model. The partially mediated model, however, performed much better than no-mediation model. Specifically, the evidence for there being a non-significant path coefficient between perceived managerial work values and job satisfaction in the partially mediated model made the partially mediated model and the fully mediated model different. Additionally, the fully mediated model was more parsimonious. In conclusion, it shows that lower-level employees who positively perceive their organizational culture and their leaders' (i.e., executive employees) work attributes display higher levels of job satisfaction. In other words, it is assumed that both perceived managerial work values and perceived constructive organizational culture have a great influence on lower-level employees' satisfaction levels at work. The current study basically compared three models that combined three constructs. Also, the author planned to find which was the best predictor of job satisfaction. Finally, the fully mediated model was chosen as the most representative model. Within the current study, this model indicates that managerial work values mainly have an indirect function in employees' job satisfaction. It also means that constructive organizational culture plays a consequential role in employees' job satisfaction. The author hopes that the findings could address useful knowledge of organizational culture in organizational behavior research within the sport management literature.
Constructive Organizational Culture, Work Values, Sport Service Organizations
March 16, 2011.
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Sport and Recreation Management in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
Michael Mondello, Professor Directing Dissertation; Tim Matherly, University Representative; Andy Rudd, Committee Member; Yanyun Yang, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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