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The need for more extensive research examining the tactical TGFU instructional model was necessary to provide teachers with adequate information to make informed decision about their selection of games instruction models. The pre-service teachers were one male and three female undergraduate students, at California State University, Sacramento. The public school students were 102 fifth grade students (55 boys and 47 girls) from four coeducational, public school classes in an urban school located in northern California. The pre-service teacher's implemented eight TGFU field hockey lessons within a two-week period to the same set of students; four developed by the primary researcher and four developed by each of the pre-service teachers. Verifying that the lesson plans represented the TGFU model required an evaluation of skill feedback, content related questions, and use of time for each lesson implemented. The pre-service teachers utilized the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) twice during the study; one was developed by the primary researcher and one by each of the pre-service teachers. Daily questionnaires and a post-study, semi-structured interview were used to collect the qualitative data. The planning phase results indicated that the tactical content was the most challenging aspect, as well as difficulties developing the tactical questions and the heightened frequency of student arguing. The implementation experiences included challenges with tactical questioning and content, as well as an increase in instructional and management time. The pre-service teachers reacted positively to the GPAI, but reported being challenged with the instrument, as well as not knowing how to use results. Ennis and Chen's Value Orientation Inventory – 2 (1993) provided information needed to analyze the relationship between the orientations and the implementation of the TGFU model. This evidence supported the fact that pre-service teachers who value the discipline mastery and learning process orientations have beliefs that are aligned with the goals of TGFU and therefore, may be better equipped to implement the model. Implications of TGFU as it related to value orientation are complex and need further study.
Teaching Games for Understanding, Tactical Model, Pre-service Teachers, TGFU, GPAI
Date of Defense
January 14, 2005.
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Sports Management, Recreation Management and Physical Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
Charles Imwold, Professor Directing Dissertation; Sande Milton, Outside Committee Member; Susan Lynn, Committee Member; Thomas Ratliffe, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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