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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differential feedback (external versus internal feedback) on closed-hand position of conductors while conducting. Closed-Hand conducting was operationally defined as palm facing down. Subjects (N = 126) were undergraduate and graduate music majors at a large southern comprehensive college of music who were divided into two groups: choral (n = 63) and instrumental (n = 63). The subjects were further divided by random assignment into one of three conditions: the external condition (n = 21), the internal condition (n = 21), or the control condition (n = 21). The independent variables were an external feedback condition during which subjects were asked to balance a coin on top of their hand while conducting, and the internal feedback condition where subjects were instructed to stabilize their wrist and hand so that they face the ground while conducting. A pretest/posttest design was used to assess the effect of the independent variables on the duration of the conductor's closed hand position while conducting. A one-way ANOVA revealed that at pretest all groups were equal. Results of a two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between pretest and posttest. There was no significant difference from pretest to posttest between choral and instrumental groups. In addition, results from pretest to posttest by treatment group (external, internal, and control) and by choral and instrumental groups suggested no significant difference. When pretest and posttest by treatment groups (external, internal, and control) were analyzed, there was a significant interaction. This interaction indicated that the amount of time spent in closed-hand conducting during pretest and posttest was contingent upon treatment group.
Focus Of Attention, Music, Conducting Pedagogy, Instrumental Conducting, Choral Conducting, Nonverbal Communication, Motor Behavior, Teaching, Instrumental, Conducting, Choral, Attention, Internal Versus External Focus Of Attention, Motor Control, Motor Behavior
Date of Defense
Date of Defense: September 20, 2007.
A Dissertation submitted to the College of Music in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
Florida State University
Dease, J. P. (no date). The Effect of Differential Feedback on Closed-versus Open-Hand Conducting
Position. Retrieved from http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_migr_etd-0064