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School of Communication Science and Disorders

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"A Glimpse Into the Past"
"A Glimpse Into the Past"
Publication Note: ISSN: 1553-4200. Also Available at Author's Website https://briangraves.org/scholarship-2/
Acknowledging Challenges And Embracing Innovative Instructional Practices In Response To Cultural And Linguistic Diversity
Acknowledging Challenges And Embracing Innovative Instructional Practices In Response To Cultural And Linguistic Diversity
Aims of the current study were to explore teachers' background, beliefs, attitudes, and sense of self-efficacy, as well as instructional supports and innovative practices in response to cultural and linguistic diversity in classrooms serving Spanish-English speaking children of migrant workers. A total of 22 teachers participated in semi-structured interviews regarding linguistic diversity in the classroom. Their responses were transcribed and qualitative analysis procedures were utilized to deconstruct units. Individual units were then clustered by similarities and differences into themes and subcategories of themes. Teacher responses to the interview questions produced themes: awareness of cultural and linguistic diversity, issues and challenges, and innovative instructional supports and practices. Participating teachers commented on general supports designed to assist communication between English Learners (EL) and the teacher or peers, facilitate communication with parents of ELs, and embrace and promote responsiveness to cultural linguistic diversity (CLD) in the classroom. Teachers identified specific supports to intensify instruction, including (a) employing multiple modalities, (b) increasing experience and exposure, and (c) providing individualized support. Additional resources and support are warranted to identify and disseminate effective practices to provide intensified instruction and support to ELs., Keywords: children, education, communication, attitudes, english-language learners, parent involvement, academics, communication studies, cultural communication, educational research, human communication, humanities, intercultural communication, interpersonal communication, language studies, language teaching, mass communication, media & society, race/gender, social sciences, speech communication, Publication Note: The publisher’s version of record is available at https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018771110
Acoustic Measures of Voice and Physiologic Measures of Autonomic Arousal during Speech as a Function of Cognitive Load.
Acoustic Measures of Voice and Physiologic Measures of Autonomic Arousal during Speech as a Function of Cognitive Load.
This study aimed to determine the relationship among cognitive load condition and measures of autonomic arousal and voice production in healthy adults. A prospective study design was conducted. Sixteen healthy young adults (eight men, eight women) produced a sentence containing an embedded Stroop task in each of two cognitive load conditions: congruent and incongruent. In both conditions, participants said the font color of the color words instead of the word text. In the incongruent condition, font color differed from the word text, creating an increase in cognitive load relative to the congruent condition in which font color and word text matched. Three physiologic measures of autonomic arousal (pulse volume amplitude, pulse period, and skin conductance response amplitude) and four acoustic measures of voice (sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, cepstral peak prominence, and low-to-high spectral energy ratio) were analyzed for eight sentence productions in each cognitive load condition per participant. A logistic regression model was constructed to predict the cognitive load condition (congruent or incongruent) using subject as a categorical predictor and the three autonomic measures and four acoustic measures as continuous predictors. It revealed that skin conductance response amplitude, cepstral peak prominence, and low-to-high spectral energy ratio were significantly associated with cognitive load condition. During speech produced under increased cognitive load, healthy young adults show changes in physiologic markers of heightened autonomic arousal and acoustic measures of voice quality. Future work is necessary to examine these measures in older adults and individuals with voice disorders., Keywords: Autonomic arousal, Autonomic nervous system, Cepstral, Spectral, Grant Number: R01 DC015570, R03 DC012651, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081741.
Assessing Vowel Centralization in Dysarthria
Assessing Vowel Centralization in Dysarthria
The strength of the relationship between vowel centralization measures and perceptual ratings of dysarthria severity has varied considerably across reports. This article evaluates methods of acoustic-perceptual analysis to determine whether procedural changes can strengthen the association between these measures. Sixty-one speakers (17 healthy individuals and 44 speakers with dysarthria) read a standard passage. To obtain acoustic data, 2 points of formant extraction (midpoint and articulatory point) and 2 frequency measures (Hz and Bark) were trialed. Both vowel space area and an adapted formant centralization ratio were calculated using first and second formants of speakers' corner vowels. Twenty-eight listeners rated speech samples using different prompts: one with a focus on intelligibility, the other on speech precision. Perceptually, listener ratings of speech precision provided the best index of acoustic change. Acoustically, the combined use of an articulatory-based formant extraction point, Bark frequency units, and the formant centralization ratio was most effective in explaining perceptual ratings. This combination of procedures resulted in an increase of 17% to 27% explained variance between measures. The procedures researchers use to assess articulatory impairment can significantly alter the strength of relationship between acoustic and perceptual measures. Procedures that maximize this relationship are recommended., Grant Number: R01 DC006859, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194930.
Assessing and Teaching Critical Thinking in Communication Science and Disorders
Assessing and Teaching Critical Thinking in Communication Science and Disorders
Critical thinking is considered to be an important aspect in the training of communication science and disorders students. This paper provides information on the definition, assessment, and teaching of critical thinking. Important critical thinking skills and dispositions include challenging assumptions underlying statements, recognizing the effect of context on perceptions, understandings, and interpretations of the world, developing alternative explanations for observed data they observe, and exhibiting reflective skepticism. Increasing these skills and dispositions help a student develop into a skilled clinician. Assessing students’ clinical thinking skills can be done with tests of general skills, but these often lack validity and reliability. Assessments also can test content or discipline specific thinking skills. Teaching critical skills and dispositions has been done in stand-alone courses and as material embedded within other courses. Within the courses, techniques such as problem-based learning, team-based learning, and case presentations have been effective with mind and concept mapping as tools to visualize how the students think about the material., Publication Note: This article was published in the open access journal, Teaching and Learning in Communication Science & Disorders, and can be found at https://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/tlcsd/vol2/iss1/4., Preferred Citation: Morris, Richard J.; Gorham-Rowan, Mary M.; Robinson, Jade H. Ph.D.; and Scholz, Kendra (2018) "Assessing and Teaching Critical Thinking in Communication Science and Disorders," Teaching and Learning in Communication Sciences & Disorders: Vol. 2 : Iss. 1 , Article 4. Available at: https://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/tlcsd/vol2/iss1/4
Autonomic Nervous System Responses During Perception of Masked Speech may Reflect Constructs other than Subjective Listening Effort
Autonomic Nervous System Responses During Perception of Masked Speech may Reflect Constructs other than Subjective Listening Effort
Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently, or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking), and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct), and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1) Unmasked speech produced by a computer, speech synthesizer, (2) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked byspeech-shaped noise and (3) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a 8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance) response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners' subjective perception of task demand were comparable across the three degraded conditions., Keywords: acceptable noise-level, adults, aid use, heart-rate changes, informational masking, listening effort, memory, older, peripheral vasoconstriction, psychophysiology, sentence recognition, synthetic speech, Publication Note: The publisher’s version of record is available at http://www.dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00263
Autonomic Nervous System Responses During Perception of Masked Speech may Reflect Constructs other than Subjective Listening Effort.
Autonomic Nervous System Responses During Perception of Masked Speech may Reflect Constructs other than Subjective Listening Effort.
Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking), and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct), and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1) Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked byspeech-shaped noise and (3) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance) response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners' subjective perception of task demand were comparable across the three degraded conditions., Keywords: Informational masking, Listening effort, Psychophysiology, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772584.
Early Identification Of Reading Comprehension Difficulties
Early Identification Of Reading Comprehension Difficulties
Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures of language ability in kindergarten significantly added to the prediction of reading comprehension difficulties over and above kindergarten word reading predictors and direct measures of word reading in second grade. Response to language intervention also proved to be a unique predictor of reading comprehension outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the early identification of reading disabilities., Keywords: at-risk, dynamic assessment, dyslexia, early identification, intervention, kindergarten, language impairment, language intervention, nonword repetition, oral language, response to intervention, roc analysis, young-children, Publication Note: The publisher's version of record is available at https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219414556121
Effect Of The Menstrual Cycle On Dichotic Listening
Effect Of The Menstrual Cycle On Dichotic Listening
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on responses to a dichotic listening task. It was hypothesized that participants would exhibit a stronger right ear advantage during the menstrual cycle days when estrogen levels are at their peak. It was also hypothesized that the women not taking oral contraceptives would exhibit greater variations in ear advantage over the course of their menstrual cycle than those taking oral contraceptives. Finally, it was hypothesized that the error response rates would remain similar across different listening conditions and over the menstrual cycle. The participants were 30 women who took oral contraceptives and 15 who did not. They completed nine listening sessions comprised of three dichotic listening tasks: forced-left, forced-right, and open. The data were analyzed using a mixed effects models. The participants exhibited a reduction in right ear responses on the days that corresponded to when the level of estrogen would begin to increase. This response was different from what had been hypothesized. The analysis also indicated no response differences between the two groups of women. In addition, the women exhibited fewer errors over the course of the sessions, implying that they adapted to the task. The results indicate that the women's hormone fluctuation across the menstrual cycle affected their responses to the forced-left, cognitive control, task only., Keywords: models, perception, adults, attention, cognitive control, hormones, language lateralization, right-ear advantage, stimuli, Publication Note: The publisher's version of record is available at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212673
Effectiveness of Two Methods for Teaching Critical Thinking to Communication Science and Disorders Undergraduates
Effectiveness of Two Methods for Teaching Critical Thinking to Communication Science and Disorders Undergraduates
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two methods for teaching critical thinking (CT) skills to communication sciences and disorders students. It was hypothesized that a short course of critical thinking training would result in improved student scores on CT assessments. Also, it was hypothesized that students taught using a mixed instruction method would exhibit more improvement in their CT skills. The research involved a pre- and post-test comparison of students who completed 10 weeks of critical thinking instruction. The students had either a mix of direct instruction of CT concepts with problem-based learning communication sciences and disorders (CSD) examples or infused problem-based learning CT instruction. With CSD based problems. The pre- and post-tests consisted of a general and a content specific CT assessment. All of the students exhibited improved scores on both CT measures. In addition, the students who had the mixed instruction exhibited greater improvements. The greatest improvements for all students occurred for the trained CT skills. These results indicate that both mixed and infused instruction can be effective in teaching students CT skills, however, the mixed instruction was more effective., critical thinking, teaching methods, Communication Sciences and Disorders, This is the accepted manuscript, and the publisher's version of record can be found at https://cjslpa.ca/files/2019_CJSLPA_Vol_43/No_1/CJSLPA_Vol_43_No_1_2019_MS_1145.pdf
Effects of Familiarization on Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech in Older Adults With and Without Hearing Loss.
Effects of Familiarization on Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech in Older Adults With and Without Hearing Loss.
Familiarization tasks offer a promising platform for listener-targeted remediation of intelligibility disorders associated with dysarthria. To date, the body of work demonstrating improved understanding of dysarthric speech following a familiarization experience has been carried out on younger adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the intelligibility effects of familiarization in older adults. Nineteen older adults, with and without hearing loss, completed a familiarization protocol consisting of three phases: pretest, familiarization, and posttest. The older adults' initial intelligibility and intelligibility improvement scores were compared with previously reported data collected from 50 younger adults (Borrie, Lansford, & Barrett, 2017a). Relative to younger adults, initial intelligibility scores were significantly lower for older adults, although additional analysis revealed that the difference was limited to older adults with hearing loss. Key, however, is that irrespective of hearing status, the older and younger adults achieved comparable intelligibility improvement following familiarization (gain of roughly 20 percentage points). This study extends previous findings of improved intelligibility of dysarthria following familiarization to a group of listeners who are critical to consider in listener-targeted remediation, namely, aging caregivers and/or spouses of individuals with dysarthria., Grant Number: R21 DC016084, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968332.
Epilogue
Epilogue
Purpose: In this epilogue, we review the 4 response articles and highlight the implications of a multidimensional view of reading for the assessment and instruction of reading comprehension. Method: We reiterate the problems with standardized tests of reading comprehension and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of recently developed authentic tests of reading comprehension. In the "Instruction" section, we review the benefits and limitations of strategy instruction and highlight suggestions from the response articles to improve content and language knowledge. Conclusions: We argue that the only compelling reason to administer a standardized test of reading comprehension is when these tests are necessary to qualify students for special education services. Instruction should be focused on content knowledge, language knowledge, and specific task and learning requirements. This instruction may entail the use of comprehension strategies, particularly those that are specific to the task and focus on integrating new knowledge with prior knowledge., Keywords: language, students, Publication Note: The publisher's version of record is available at https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_LSHSS-16-0049
Generalized Adaptation to Dysarthric Speech.
Generalized Adaptation to Dysarthric Speech.
Generalization of perceptual learning has received limited attention in listener adaptation studies with dysarthric speech. This study investigated whether adaptation to a talker with dysarthria could be predicted by the nature of the listener's prior familiarization experience, specifically similarity of perceptual features, and level of intelligibility. Following an intelligibility pretest involving a talker with ataxic dysarthria, 160 listeners were familiarized with 1 of 7 talkers with dysarthria-who differed from the test talker in terms of perceptual similarity (same, similar, dissimilar) and level of intelligibility (low, mid, high)-or a talker with no neurological impairment (control). Listeners then completed an intelligibility posttest on the test talker. All listeners benefited from familiarization with a talker with dysarthria; however, adaptation to the test talker was superior when the familiarization talker had similar perceptual features and reduced when the familiarization talker had low intelligibility. Evidence for both generalization and specificity of learning highlights the differential value of listeners' prior experiences for adaptation to, and improved understanding of, a talker with dysarthria. These findings broaden our theoretical knowledge of adaptation to degraded speech, as well as the clinical application of training paradigms that exploit perceptual processes for therapeutic gain., Grant Number: R21 DC016084, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5945074.
Grammatical Judgment And Production In Male Participants With Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder
Grammatical Judgment And Production In Male Participants With Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder
This study examined grammatical judgment and production in 22 male participants with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had a range of nonverbal IQ from 44 to 111 (mean = 72.23) and were between 9.42 and 16.75 years of age (mean = 13.45). Relationships between grammatical judgment and production and nonverbal IQ were examined. Participants completed the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (TEGI) to describe relative strengths and weaknesses in their ability to judge and produce grammatical tense. Participants also completed the Leiter-R to assess the relationship between nonverbal IQ and grammatical judgment and production. Relative strengths were found across participants in judging correct use of subject-verb agreement in sentences, and correctly producing verbs that linked sentences (e.g., auxiliaries and copulas of be "Is she resting?"). Participants had the greatest difficulty judging the correctness of a sentence using a dropped verb tense marker (e.g., "He look happy now") and producing irregular verb tense markers. Nonverbal IQ did not contribute to the variance in performance on any tasks of grammaticality judgment or production. Grammatical markers that mark tense in past tense verbs as well as the production of auxiliary do may be an important focus of language intervention for boys with ASD., power, children, vocabulary, attention, Autism spectrum disorder, acquisition, language impairment, boys, intellectual disability, grammar, expressive language, language comprehension, language production, tense marking, typical development, The publisher's version of record is availible at https://doi.org/10.1080/02699206.2020.1719208
ISSAS Model
ISSAS Model
Sexual assault is a prevalent, yet underreported and stigmatizing crime that disproportionately affects college-age students. The literature of Library & Information Studies does not currently address the ways in which survivors may seek information after an assault. Blending findings from Psychology and LIS, this study proposes the Information Seeking of Sexual Assault Survivors (ISSAS) model, which examines the seeking process through various stages of healing. The article concludes with directions for future research as well as insights on serving survivors within the academic library while being mindful of one’s appropriate professional role., Preferred Citation: Skinner, J., & Gross, M. (2016). The ISSAS Model: Understanding the Information Needs of Sexual Assault Survivors on College Campuses. College & Research Libraries, crl16-882.
Listeners' Attitudes Toward Accented Talkers Uniquely Predicts Accented Speech Perception
Listeners' Attitudes Toward Accented Talkers Uniquely Predicts Accented Speech Perception
Listeners' sensitivity to indexical information influences their ability to perceive and remember speech, but it is less clear if listeners' subjective ratings of talker characteristics also impact speech perception ability. The present experiment tested the increase in variance accounted for by listeners' ratings of foreign accented talkers' manner of speaking and of the talkers themselves beyond the variance already accounted for by listeners' age, executive function, and hearing thresholds. Adding listeners' ratings significantly improved model fit, indicating that listeners' subjective experience of talker impacts speech perception accuracy along with objective listener characteristics such as hearing thresholds or executive function. (C) 2017 Acoustical Society of America, Keywords: adaptation, age, foreign-accent, hearing-loss, intelligibility, recognition, noise, older-adults, dysarthria, scores, Publication Note: The publisher's version of record is available at https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4977583
Long-Term Average Spectra from a Youth Choir Singing in Three Vocal Registers and Two          Dynamic Levels
Long-Term Average Spectra from a Youth Choir Singing in Three Vocal Registers and Two Dynamic Levels
Few studies have reported the acoustic characteristics of youth choirs. In addition, scant data are available on youth choruses making the adjustments needed to sing at different dynamic levels in different registers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to acoustically analyze the singing of a youth chorus to observe the evidence of the adjustments that they made to sing at two dynamic levels in three singing registers. The participants were 47 members of the Brooklyn Youth Chorus who sang the same song sample in head, mixed, and chest voice at piano and forte dynamic levels. The song samples were recorded and analyzed using long-term averaged spectra (LTAS) and related spectral measures. The spectra revealed different patterns among the registers. These differences imply that the singers were making glottal adjustments to sing the different register and dynamic level versions of the song. The duration of the closed phase as estimated from the amplitudes of the first two harmonics differed between the chest and head register singing at both dynamic levels. In addition the spectral slopes differed among all three registers at both dynamic levels. These acoustic measures may be a useful tool for evaluating some singing skills of young choristers., Keywords: Youth Singing–LTAS–Vocal Registers–Dynamic levels, Note: NOTICE: this is the author's version of a work that was accepted for publication in The Journal of Voice. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in The Journal of Voice, [26, 1, 2012] DOI: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.07.003, Citation: Richard J. Morris, Sten Ternström, Jeannette LoVetri, Dianne Berkun, Long-Term Average Spectra From a Youth Choir Singing in Three Vocal Registers and Two Dynamic Levels, Journal of Voice, Volume 26, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 30-36, ISSN 0892-1997, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.07.003.
Modeling listener perception of speaker similarity in dysarthria
Modeling listener perception of speaker similarity in dysarthria
The current investigation contributes to a perceptual similarity-based approach to dysarthria characterization by utilizing an innovative statistical approach, multinomial logistic regression with sparsity constraints, to identify acoustic features underlying each listener's impressions of speaker similarity. The data-driven approach also permitted an examination of the effect of clinical experience on listeners' impressions of similarity. Listeners, irrespective of level of clinical experience, were found to rely on similar acoustic features during the perceptual sorting task, known as free classification. Overall, the results support the continued advancement of a similarity-based approach to characterizing the communication disorders associated with dysarthria. (C) 2016 Acoustical Society of America, Keywords: classification, experience, ratings, voice, Publication Note: The publisher’s version of record is available at http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4954384
Neural Preservation Underlies Speech Improvement From Auditory Deprivation In Young Cochlear Implant Recipients
Neural Preservation Underlies Speech Improvement From Auditory Deprivation In Young Cochlear Implant Recipients
Although cochlear implantation enables some children to attain age-appropriate speech and language development, communicative delays persist in others, and outcomes are quite variable and difficult to predict, even for children implanted early in life. To understand the neurobiological basis of this variability, we used presurgical neural morphological data obtained from MRI of individual pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates implanted younger than 3.5 years to predict variability of their speech-perception improvement after surgery. We first compared neuroanatomical density and spatial pattern similarity of CI candidates to that of age-matched children with normal hearing, which allowed us to detail neuroanatomical networks that were either affected or unaffected by auditory deprivation. This information enables us to build machine-learning models to predict the individual children's speech development following CI. We found that regions of the brain that were unaffected by auditory deprivation, in particular the auditory association and cognitive brain regions, produced the highest accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity in patient classification and the most precise prediction results. These findings suggest that brain areas unaffected by auditory deprivation are critical to developing closer to typical speech outcomes. Moreover, the findings suggest that determination of the type of neural reorganization caused by auditory deprivation before implantation is valuable for predicting post-CI language outcomes for young children., Keywords: children, brain, prediction, mri, hearing, cortex, machine learning, auditory deprivation, cochlear implant, cross-modal plasticity, deaf, functional connectivity, heschls gyrus, neural preservation, spoken language-development, Publication Note: The publisher's version of record is available at https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1717603115
Neural preservation underlies speech improvement from auditory deprivation in young cochlear implant recipients.
Neural preservation underlies speech improvement from auditory deprivation in young cochlear implant recipients.
Although cochlear implantation enables some children to attain age-appropriate speech and language development, communicative delays persist in others, and outcomes are quite variable and difficult to predict, even for children implanted early in life. To understand the neurobiological basis of this variability, we used presurgical neural morphological data obtained from MRI of individual pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates implanted younger than 3.5 years to predict variability of their speech-perception improvement after surgery. We first compared neuroanatomical density and spatial pattern similarity of CI candidates to that of age-matched children with normal hearing, which allowed us to detail neuroanatomical networks that were either affected or unaffected by auditory deprivation. This information enables us to build machine-learning models to predict the individual children's speech development following CI. We found that regions of the brain that were unaffected by auditory deprivation, in particular the auditory association and cognitive brain regions, produced the highest accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity in patient classification and the most precise prediction results. These findings suggest that brain areas unaffected by auditory deprivation are critical to developing closer to typical speech outcomes. Moreover, the findings suggest that determination of the type of neural reorganization caused by auditory deprivation before implantation is valuable for predicting post-CI language outcomes for young children., Keywords: Auditory deprivation, Cochlear implant, Machine learning, Neural preservation, Prediction, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798370.

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