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Florida Learning Disability Research Center

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"Waiting to Fail" Redux
"Waiting to Fail" Redux
This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of the promise, but also the ongoing challenges, related to Response to Intervention (RTI) as a means of both prevention and identification of reading disabilities. We conclude by describing the articles in this special issue and considering their implications for future research., Keywords: Response to intervention, Identification, Prevention, Reading disabilities, Grant Number: P50 HD052120, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240019.
Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.
Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.
The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research., Keywords: Juvenile detainees, Mathematics, Reading, Grant Number: P50 HD052120, HD052120, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5064284.
Academic Responding During Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-risk for Reading Difficulties.
Academic Responding During Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-risk for Reading Difficulties.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in relation to student reading achievement as well as social behaviors. Student academic responding during teacher-facilitated instruction significantly predicted end of year reading achievement. Teacher perceptions of students' social skills (positive correlation) and problem behaviors (negative correlation) were significantly correlated with academic responding. When academic responding and teacher perceptions of social behaviors were examined together, only teacher perceptions of academic competence and problem behaviors predicted spring outcomes., Grant Number: P50 HD052120, R03 HD060758, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3961576.
Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten Through Fourth Grade
Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten Through Fourth Grade
With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed Content Area Literacy Instruction (CALI), as an individualized (or personalized) instructional program for kindergarteners through fourth graders to build science and social studies knowledge. We developed CALI to be implemented in general education classrooms, over multiple iterations (n=230 students), using principles of design-based implementation research. The aims were to develop CALI as a usable and feasible instructional program that would, potentially, improve science and social studies knowledge, and could be implemented during the literacy block without negatively affecting students' reading gains (i.e., no opportunity cost). We then evaluated the efficacy of CALI in a randomized controlled field trial with 418 students in kindergarten through fourth grade. Results reveal that CALI demonstrates promise as a useable and feasible instructional individualized general education program, and is efficacious in improving social studies (=2.2) and science (=2.1) knowledge, with some evidence of improving oral and reading comprehension skills (=.125)., Keywords: Academic Achievement, Design Studies, Elementary Education, Growth Curve Analysis, HLM, Knowledge, Literacy Block, Longitudinal Data Analysis, Poverty, Reading, Science, Social Studies, Structural Equation Modeling, Vocabulary, Grant Number: P50 HD052120, R01 HD048539, R21 HD062834, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5415842.
Advanced (Measurement) Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading.
Advanced (Measurement) Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading.
The purpose of this article is to provide a commentary on the current state of several measurement issues pertaining to curriculum-based measures of reading (R-CBM). We begin by providing an overview of the utility of R-CBM, followed by a presentation of five specific measurements considerations: 1) the reliability of R-CBM oral reading fluency, 2) issues pertaining to form effects, 3) the generalizability of scores from R-CBM, 4) measurement error, and 5) linearity of growth in R-CBM. We then conclude with a presentation of the purpose for this issue and broadly introduce the articles in the special issue. Because oral reading fluency is one of the most common measures of R-CBM, much of the review is focused on this particular type of assessment; however, the issues presented extend to other assessments of R-CBM., Grant Number: P50 HD052120, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557774.
Advanced Reading Comprehension Expectations in Secondary School
Advanced Reading Comprehension Expectations in Secondary School
The debate around recent implementation of the Common Core Standards (CCSS) has perplexed many policy makers, practitioners, and researchers; yet there remains broad agreement for the need to improve reading outcomes and college and career readiness for all students, including students with disabilities. One of the most vulnerable populations with disabilities in terms of college and career readiness is students with emotional disorders (ED). A considerable percentage of students with ED encounter unfavorable academic and long-term outcomes, often due to reading difficulties and behavioral variables that impede learning. To date, the impact of rising expectations in reading on the education of students with ED has been absent from this conversation about CCSS. In this article, we consider the implications of new reading expectations in the critical period of Grades 6-12 for students with ED. First, we summarize grade level expectations of the standards. Then, we describe the characteristics and underachievement of students with ED. Next, we evaluate challenges in meeting the expectations based on extant research, and provide recommendations for practice based on the intervention literature. We conclude by prioritizing a research and policy agenda that advocates for increasing the likelihood of success in reading for students with ED in middle school and high school., Keywords: Emotional- Behavior Disorders, Reading, Standards, Grant Number: P50 HD052120, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4937879.
Age-related changes of gene expression in the neocortex
Age-related changes of gene expression in the neocortex
The study of gene expression (i.e., the study of the transcriptome) in different cells and tissues allows us to understand the molecular mechanisms of their differentiation, development and functioning. In this article, we describe some studies of gene-expression profiling for the purposes of understanding developmental (age-related) changes in the brain using different technologies (e.g., DNA-Microarray) and the new and increasingly popular RNA-Seq. We focus on advancements in studies of gene expression in the human brain, which have provided data on the structure and age-related variability of the transcriptome in the brain. We present data on RNA-Seq of the transcriptome in three distinct areas of the neocortex from different ages: mature and elderly individuals. We report that most age-related transcriptional changes affect cellular signaling systems, and, as a result, the transmission of nerve impulses. In general, the results demonstrate the high potential of RNA-Seq for the study of distinctive features of gene expression among cortical areas and the changes in expression through normal and atypical development of the central nervous system., Grant Number: DC007665, P50 HD052120, P50 HD052120, R01 DC007665, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3539811.
Aggression and Violence in Sport
Aggression and Violence in Sport
This paper is the latest in a series of articles published in The Sport Psychologist in recent years on aggression and violence in sport (Kerr, 1999, 2002; Tenenbaum, Sacks, Miller, Golden, & Doolin, 2000; Tenenbaum, Stewart, Singer, & Duda, 1997). While these respective articles have presented dissenting views on the nature and prevention of aggression and violence in sport, the present paper proposes that much of the apparent disagreement is semantic in nature. Thus, this paper begins by clarifying some definitional issues before specifying both areas of agreement and continued dissention among recent authors. Major emphases in this paper include the importance of adopting preventative rather than reactive measures to reduce the dangers associated with aggression and violence in sport, as well as the manner in which adult sport norms affect youth sport environments. In addition, several broader issues, which have emerged from these recent published debates, are presented for future consideration., Grant Number: P50 HD052120, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4743757.
Agreement Among Traditional and RTI-based Definitions of Reading-Related Learning Disability with Preschool Children.
Agreement Among Traditional and RTI-based Definitions of Reading-Related Learning Disability with Preschool Children.
To investigate approaches for identifying young children who may be at risk for later reading-related learning disabilities, this study compared the use of four contemporary methods of indexing learning disability (LD) with older children (i.e., IQ-achievement discrepancy, low achievement, low growth, and dual-discrepancy) to determine risk status with a large sample of 1,011 preschoolers. These children were classified as at risk or not using each method across three early-literacy skills (i.e., language, phonological awareness, print knowledge) and at three levels of severity (i.e., 5th, 10th, 25th percentiles). Chance-corrected affected-status agreement (CCASA) indicated poor agreement among methods with rates of agreement generally decreasing with greater levels of severity for both single- and two-measure classification, and agreement rates were lower for two-measure classification than for single-measure classification. These low rates of agreement between conventional methods of identifying children at risk for LD represent a significant impediment for identification and intervention for young children considered at-risk., Keywords: Identification, Learning disability, Preschool, Response to intervention, Grant Number: P50 HD052120, U01 HD060292, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5489126.
Amount of Time in Print Reading in General Education Kindergarten Classrooms
Amount of Time in Print Reading in General Education Kindergarten Classrooms
The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of time spent actively engaged in reading sounds, words, and connected text for students at-risk for reading difficulties in the first formal grade of reading instruction, kindergarten. Observational data of 109 kindergarten students at high-risk for later reading difficulties were collected during general education reading instruction across the school year. Findings revealed students read orally for just over 1 minute during their reading instruction with approximately equal time spent reading sounds, words, or connected text. Implications of these results for early reading instruction and intervention for students at-risk for reading difficulties or disabilities are presented., Keywords: Kindergarten, Oral reading, Reading instruction, Struggling readers, Grant Number: P50 HD052120, R03 HD060758, R03 HD060758-01A1, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3475198.
Anxiety sensitivity profile
Anxiety sensitivity profile
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a well-researched risk factor for the development of anxiety psychopathology. AS is typically measured using the anxiety sensitivity index (ASI) but limitations have led to the creation of second generation measures of AS including the anxiety sensitivity profile (ASP). The ASP has not been used very extensively, however, and we believe this may be due to two important issues: (1) the ASP is lengthy, and (2) the predictive validity of the ASP is unexplored in relation to critical outcomes such as anxiety psychopathology. The purpose of the present report was to address these two issues. We evaluated whether an abbreviated form of the ASP was viable and also conducted tests of the scale's predictive validity. Findings suggest that a 22-item version of the ASP (i.e., ASP-22) is comparable to the original 60-item ASP. Moreover, the ASP-22 was predictive of anxious responding to a CO(2) challenge. In fact, the ASP-22 outperformed the ASI as a predictor of CO(2) reactivity. Also, the ASP-22 was a significant longitudinal predictor of incidence of Axis I diagnoses. In regard to predictive validity, the ASP-22 was comparable to the original ASP. In summary, the ASP-22 appears to represent a viable measure of AS that may complement the ASI., Grant Number: P50 HD 052120, P50 HD052120, P50 HD052120-01, R01 MH 064734-04A1, R01 MH064734-01A1, R21 MH 62056, R21 MH062056-01A2, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600663.
Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students.
Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students.
This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade level. This model included latent predictor constructs of decoding, verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory and accounted for a large portion of the reading comprehension variance (73% to 87%) across grade levels. Verbal reasoning contributed the most unique variance to reading comprehension at all grade levels. In addition, we fit a multiple group 4-factor MIMIC model to investigate the relative stability (or variability) of the predictor contributions to reading comprehension across development (i.e., grade levels). The results revealed that the contributions of verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory to reading comprehension were stable across the three grade levels. Decoding was the only predictor that could not be constrained to be equal across grade levels. The contribution of decoding skills to reading comprehension was higher in third grade and then remained relatively stable between seventh and tenth grade. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using MIMIC models to explain individual differences in reading comprehension across the development of reading skills., Keywords: Causal indicator modeling, Decoding, Nonverbal reasoning, Reading comprehension, Verbal reasoning, Working memory, Grant Number: P50 HD052120, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4371741.
Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction
Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction
The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students' ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students' language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students' needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts., Keywords: Response to intervention, Child by instruction interactions, Kindergarten, Reading instruction, Grant Number: P50 HD052120, P50 HD052120-03, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3147177.
Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills
Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills
The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment., Grant Number: P50 HD052120, P50 HD052120-01, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237681.
At the height of fashion
At the height of fashion
The last decade has generated much interest in the genetics of developmental disorders. This interest, in part, is focused on two issues: the specificity/generality and the type/frequency of the genetic mechanisms involved. First, it appears that studies are more fruitful and their results more replicable, broadly speaking, when they conceptualize disorders not holistically, as categorical units, but componentially, through various quantitative processes. Second, there have been several successful investigations of severe impairments in a number of isolated families with higher than typical frequencies of developmental disorders. Yet, it has been difficult to generalize the genetic mechanisms involved in these rare cases to the general population. Current findings suggest the involvement of multiple genetic mechanisms in the manifestations of childhood-onset conditions. It is possible that each 'facet' (or component) of a disorder is controlled by a semi-independent set of genes. Numerous components appear to be deficient in more than one disorder, possibly explaining comorbidity. The genetic foundation of developmental disorders may be formed not by isolated genes, but rather by a combination of genes and the pathways that these genes regulate. These accumulating findings have direct implications for designing both diagnostic and treatment approaches to childhood-onset disorders., Grant Number: P0 HD052120, P50 HD052120, P50 HD052120-040004, R01 DC007665, R01 DC007665, R01 DC007665-05, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2891771.
Attentional but not pre-attentive neural measures of auditory discrimination are atypical in children with developmental language disorder.
Attentional but not pre-attentive neural measures of auditory discrimination are atypical in children with developmental language disorder.
We examined neural indices of pre-attentive phonological and attentional auditory discrimination in children with developmental language disorder (DLD, n = 23) and typically developing (n = 16) peers from a geographically isolated Russian-speaking population with an elevated prevalence of DLD. Pre-attentive phonological MMN components were robust and did not differ in two groups. Children with DLD showed attenuated P3 and atypically distributed P2 components in the attentional auditory discrimination task; P2 and P3 amplitudes were linked to working memory capacity, development of complex syntax, and vocabulary. The results corroborate findings of reduced processing capacity in DLD and support a multifactorial view of the disorder., Grant Number: P01 HD001994, P50 HD052120, R01 DC007665, P01 HD1994, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4399717.
BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.
BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.
Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes., Grant Number: P01 HD001994, P50 HD052120, R01 HD048830, R03 HD053409, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995017.
BDNF Val66Met and cognition
BDNF Val66Met and cognition
The Val66Met, G196A (rs6265) polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, BDNF, located at 11p13, has been associated with a wide range of cognitive functions. Yet, the pattern of results is complex and conflicting. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis that included 23 publications containing 31 independent samples comprised of 7095 individuals. The phenotypes that were examined in this analysis covered a wide variety of cognitive functions and included indicators of general cognitive ability, memory, executive function, visual processing skills and cognitive fluency. The meta-analysis did not establish significant genetic associations between the Val66Met polymorphism and any of the phenotypes that were included., Grant Number: DC007665, HD052120, R01 DC007665, R01 DC007665-05, R21 TW006764, R21 TW006764-02, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3268899.
BDNF ValMet polymorphism is associated with structural neuroanatomical differences in young children.
BDNF ValMet polymorphism is associated with structural neuroanatomical differences in young children.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ValMet single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated with individual differences in brain structure and function, and cognition. Research on BDNF's influence on brain and cognition has largely been limited to adults, and little is known about the association of this gene, and specifically the ValMet polymorphism, with developing brain structure and emerging cognitive functions in children. We performed a targeted genetic association analysis on cortical thickness, surface area, and subcortical volume in 78 children (ages 6-10) who were Val homozygotes (homozygous Val/Val carriers) or Met carriers (Val/Met, Met/Met) for the ValMet locus using Atlas-based brain segmentation. We observed greater cortical thickness for Val homozygotes in regions supporting declarative memory systems (anterior temporal pole/entorhinal cortex), consistent with adult findings. Met carriers had greater surface area in the prefrontal and parietal cortices and greater cortical thickness in lateral occipital/parietal cortex in contrast to prior adult findings that may relate to performance on cognitive tasks supported by these regions in Met carriers. Finally, we found larger right hippocampal volume in Met carriers, although inconsistent with adult findings (generally reports larger volumes for Val homozygotes), is consistent with a recent finding in children. Gene expression levels vary across different brain regions and across development and our findings highlight the need to consider this developmental change in explorations of BDNF-brain relationships. The impact of the BDNF ValMet polymorphism on the structure of the developing brain therefore reflects regionally-specific developmental changes in BDNF expression and cortical maturation trajectories., Keywords: BDNF, Cortical thickness, Development, Gray matter volume, Neurogenetics, Surface area, Rs6265, SMRI neuroimaging, Grant Number: R01 HD065794, R03 HD053409, P20 HD091013, R21 DA030665, P50 HD052120, R01 HD040411, R01 HD048830, P01 HD001994, R01 HD086168, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5536104.
Behavior, brain, and genome in genomic disorders
Behavior, brain, and genome in genomic disorders
Within the last decade or so, there has been an acceleration of research attempting to connect specific genetic lesions to the patterns of brain structure and activation. This article comments on observations that have been made based on these recent data and discusses their importance for the field of investigations into developmental disorders. In making these observations, the authors focus on one specific genomic lesion, the well-studied, yet still incompletely understood, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The authors demonstrate the degree of variability in the phenotype that occurs at both the brain and behavioral levels of genomic disorders and describe how this variability is, on close inspection, represented at the genomic level. The authors emphasize the importance of combining genetic/genomic analyses and neuroimaging for research and for future clinical diagnostic purposes and for the purposes of developing individualized, patient-tailored treatment and remediation approaches., Grant Number: DC007665, HD048830, HD052120, MH089176, P50 HD052120, R01 DC007665, R01 HD048830, R01 MH089176, Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4124614.

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