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Neurophysiological and behavioral investigations of differential sodium preference in 129/J and C57BL/6J mice
Neurophysiological and behavioral investigations of differential sodium preference in 129/J and C57BL/6J mice
Mice of the 129/J and C57BL/6J inbred strains were assessed behaviorally using two-bottle 48-h preference tests and found to differ in their preference for 0.08 M NaCl. 129/J mice exhibited a greater preference for NaCl solutions compared to C57BL/6J mice. Underlying this preference was a significant difference in NaCl intake, with 129/J mice consuming more NaCl than C57BL/6J mice. Additional behavioral testing revealed that prior NaCl exposure played an important role in determining the extent of the difference in NaCl intake for the two strains of mice. To determine if the strain difference was mediated by gustatory mechanisms, the integrated neural responses of the chorda tympani nerve to a concentration range of NaCl and KCl were examined. No strain differences were found in neural gustatory responses. However, with the lingual application of 0.5 mM amiloride hydrochloride, a sodium channel transport blocker, suppression of the neural responses to NaCl was apparent in C57BL/6J mice but not in 129/J mice. Results suggest that for 129/J mice, salt reception and transduction are primarily amiloride-insensitive whereas for C57BL/6J mice, both amiloride-sensitive and amiloride-insensitive components are present. The strain difference in salt intake may be mediated through gustatory mechanisms, with reduced salt preference in long-term tests influenced by amiloride-sensitive sodium transduction mechanisms., Blood levels of sodium were dissimilar in the two strains under normal conditions. Following sodium depletion, C57BL/6J mice exhibited a significant reduction in blood sodium levels. In response to furosemide-induced sodium depletion, a sodium appetite was produced for both groups of mice, although it was more pronounced in C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that differential regulation of sodium balance in 129/J and C57BL/6J mice may also contribute to differences in sodium intake., Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 55-12, Section: B, page: 5596., Major Professor: James C. Smith., Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1994.
Neuroprotective Effects of Lithium in Deafferentation-Induced Cell Death of Chick Cochlear Nucleus Neurons
Neuroprotective Effects of Lithium in Deafferentation-Induced Cell Death of Chick Cochlear Nucleus Neurons
The avian brainstem serves as a useful model to answer the question of how afferent activity influences viability of target neurons. Approximately 20-30% of neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) die following deafferentation (i.e., deafness produced by cochlea removal). We have recently shown that chronic treatments of lithium increase neuronal survival following deafferentation. The mechanism of this neuroprotective effect is unknown, but one possibility is that lithium increases the expression of neuroprotective molecules. We have shown that the neuroprotective protein Bcl-2, is upregulated in NM neurons following lithium treatment. Interestingly, Bcl-2 mRNA (but not protein) is upregulated in a subpopulation of NM neurons following deafferentation. In both cases, it is not known what sequence of events leads to the upregulation of Bcl-2. The present experiments examine changes in molecules known to regulate Bcl-2 expression to determine whether similar factors are involved in the regulation observed following lithium administration and following deafferentation. Although Bcl-2 expression may be an important contributor to neuronal survival, it is possible that lithium is neuroprotective through its influence on other molecules. To begin to identify the mechanism of lithium's neuroprotective effect, we also determined where in the cell death cascade lithium is having its effect., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2007., Date of Defense: September 7, 2007., Keywords: Chick, Cell Death, Auditory, Lithium Neuroprotection, bcl-2, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Rick Hyson, Professor Directing Dissertation; Bryant Chase, Outside Committee Member; Thomas Houpt, Committee Member; Frank Johnson, Committee Member; Barbara Licht, Committee Member.
Neuropsychological Indicators of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Among Depressed Older Adults
Neuropsychological Indicators of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Among Depressed Older Adults
Depression and Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur frequently in geriatric patients, but it is difficult to identify which depressed patients are in the preclinical AD phase due to the overlapping cognitive impairment in depression and AD. Based on data from 120 depressed patients who were dementia-free and completed a range of neuropsychological tests at baseline, we predicted that measures of temporal lobe function (area affected most in early AD), but not frontal lobe function, would distinguish older depressed patients who developed AD from those who did not develop AD. We found the domain of temporal lobe function was associated with AD to a greater extent than frontal lobe function in a structural equation model (SEM). Individual tests of temporal lobe function, including Logical Memory and Word List Learning were most predictive of AD status and had the highest sensitivity in logistic regression models. At least a one standard deviation on these tests in relation to scores derived for the population based on age and education should alert the clinician to the possibility of preclinical AD and warrant closer follow-up., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011., Date of Defense: June 13, 2011., Keywords: Normative Data, Dementia, Elderly, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Natalie SachsEricsson, Professor Directing Thesis; Joyce Carbonell, Committee Member; Walter Boot, Committee Member.
Neuropsychological functioning, sleep and vigilance in men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treated with continuous positive airway pressure
Neuropsychological functioning, sleep and vigilance in men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treated with continuous positive airway pressure
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by upper airway occlusion during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance, hypoxemia, and daytime sleepiness. This study investigated the neuropsychological (NPSY) functioning, daytime sleepiness and vigilance of 17 male subjects (mean age = 45.2) with moderate to severe OSAS (mean Respiratory Disturbance Index = 65.1). Subjects were assessed before, three days, and two months after treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. Groups received three assessments consisting of a NPSY test battery, measurement of physiological/subjective sleepiness, and vigilance. After baseline assessment, ten subjects were treated with CPAP for three nights, while seven control subjects remained untreated. Control subjects' data for the second assessment was used to estimate practice and placebo effects. After the second assessment, all subjects were treated., Results revealed that subjects did not show significant NPSY impairment before treatment despite showing near pathological levels of sleepiness and impaired vigilance., After three nights of treatment, subjects evidenced significant improvement on only 1 of 18 NPSY measures (visual memory). Correlational analyses revealed an association between decreases in sleep fragmentation after acute treatment and improvement on tasks assessing visual memory, attention and concentration and verbal intellectual functioning. A relationship between improvement in nocturnal oxygen saturation and neuropsychological tests assessing attention and concentration and verbal intellectual functioning was also found. Vigilance and sleepiness were not improved., At follow-up, only modest improvements in visual and verbal memory were found. Vigilance had returned to normal levels and sleepiness was significantly reduced but had not returned to normal levels., The present study did not find evidence of significant NPSY dysfunction in OSAS patients before treatment. After correcting for practice effects, little improvement was seen in NPSY function after two months of CPAP treatment. These results highlight the importance of a control group in studies utilizing a repeated neuropsychological testing protocol. Further, it suggests that previous studies may have overestimated the improvement in cognitive functions of OSAS patients after treatment with CPAP., Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 54-12, Section: B, page: 6452., Major Professor: Jack G. May, Jr., Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1993.
Never Forget
Never Forget
This thesis examines the similarities and differences between Florida's Holocaust museums and memorials and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how each institution is a reflection of its local community and how that reflection is based on each institution's perceived audience. Holocaust awareness grew in the United States over the last sixty years, culminating in the opening of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1993. Since its opening the museum has served as a template for other museums on how to define the Holocaust and promote education. Museums in Florida that have opened post-1993 contain elements that are reminiscent of the national museum. At the same time, they are designed in a way that best represents the audience that each institution reaches. This thesis uses newspapers, institutional records, interviews, and the physical examination of the memorials and museums themselves, to analyze the creation of public memory. These institutions of Holocaust memory in Florida have created a sense of place for survivors and their loved ones. They are also places to honor the memory of the people whose lives were lost. Lastly, they are permanent fixtures that ensure that the story of the Holocaust will not be forgotten by future generations., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of History in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2010., Date of Defense: June 11, 2010., Keywords: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Florida, Memorials, Museums, Public Memory, Holocaust, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Jennifer Koslow, Professor Directing Thesis; Jonathan Grant, Committee Member; Nathan Stoltzfus, Committee Member.
Never Played with
Never Played with
In the mid-1970s, Raven Corporation emerges from obscurity to become the leading toy manufacturer by producing action figures for popular TV shows and celebrities. In 1976, Raven's charismatic president passes up the chance to make toys for a new film, Star Wars. The present action of the novel takes place 30 years later during a nostalgic renewal of interest in Raven. The two sons of Charles Carrigan, long estranged from each other, cross paths at a comic book convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Seth Carrigan, the narrator, lives in Baltimore and works as a junk mail writer. His brother Pete is an entrepreneur on the fringe of the entertainment industry. Seth becomes drawn into a bizarre subculture of collectors who seek a missing prototype for a never-produced Posable figure. Rival manufacturers also seek the one-of-a-kind toy in order to duplicate it and revive the long-defunct Posables line. As Seth joins in the hunt, he uncovers mysteries buried in Raven and in his own family. Never Played With dramatizes a family crisis against a backdrop of turbulent social change: the endgame of Vietnam, the rise of divorce, the oil crisis, and the emergence of grand distractions from these woes, the first blockbuster films: Jaws and Star Wars. Seth Carrigan confronts the past in an effort to understand his father, his family, and his own complicated legacy., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of English in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2006., Date of Defense: October 17, 2006., Keywords: Narrative, American, Novel, Fiction, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Robert Olen Butler, Professor Directing Dissertation; Thomas Joiner, Outside Committee Member; Mark Winegardner, Committee Member; R. Bruce Bickley, Committee Member.
New Adaptive Detection Algorithm for Power Quality Improvement
New Adaptive Detection Algorithm for Power Quality Improvement
In this dissertation, a new adaptive harmonic selective detection algorithm is proposed for power quality improvement applications. The adaptive gains of the proposed method can be chosen relatively large to obtain faster convergence. The stability of the proposed method is guaranteed. The adaptive harmonic selective algorithm is analyzed then compared to a popular d-q method. This proposed adaptive method is simple and effective in extracting fundamental and harmonic current information from harmonic load currents. The extracted fundamental or harmonic currents therefore can be used as the reference signals for power quality improvement applications such as harmonic selective cancellation or reactive power compensation. The proposed adaptive algorithm can estimate time varying power system frequency and it also can identify a dc offset in a load current. These are two conditions that the d-q transformation based detection algorithm is incapable of. This adaptive detection method is phase independent and therefore it can be easily applied to three phase systems. Simulation and experimental results verify the good performance of the proposed new adaptive detection method., Submitted Note: A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2007., Date of Defense: September 21, 2007., Keywords: Adptive Detection, Power Quality, Harmonics, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: David A. Cartes, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Hui Li, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Simon Y. Foo, Outside Committee Member; Emmanuel G. Collins, Committee Member; Justin Schwartz, Committee Member.
New Approach to Assess Perceptions of Stadium Quality
New Approach to Assess Perceptions of Stadium Quality
In this study, I developed a revised measurement scale to assess the quality of sports facilities. Because sporting events meet psychological, social, and experiential needs of sports consumers, sports teams provide various ancillary services and entertainment activities to enhance consumer experiences. Accordingly, experiential elements of sporting events have been examined in the study of service quality (Ko, Zhang, Cattani, & Pastore, 2011; Yoshida & James, 2011). This line of research, however, lacks a scale to assess the extent to which functional and experiential elements of sports facilities influence consumer behaviors. Although sportscape (Wakefield, Blodgett, & Sloan, 1996) was developed to assess the quality of sports facilities, items in the scale have been subsumed and used to measure service or event quality (Ko et al., 2011). Additionally, the existing scales focus on functional aspects of sports stadium and do not fully assess the quality of sports facilities as a branded environment where spectators can have unique experiences. To address the gaps, I developed a revised scale to measure consumers' perceived sports stadium quality, which encompasses both functional and experiential aspects of sports facilities. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a revised scale to measure consumers' perceived quality of sports facilities. The existing scale to assess the quality of sports facilities is sportscape (Wakefield et al., 1996), which focuses on sports stadium factors such as stadium access, seat comfort, and layout accessibility. By revising and extending the original sportscape, I developed a scale to assess the quality of sports facilities as a representation of a team brand, as well as a place where sports consumers can have unique and memorable experiences. I used the procedure presented by Hinkin (1998) to develop a revised scale, and identified sportscape factors based on a literature review and focus group interviews. After specific factors were identified and question items were developed, two rounds of data collection were conducted to provide evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. To identify sportscape factors and generate items, non-sportscape studies of brand associations (e.g., Ross et al., 2006) and sports consumer motives (e.g., Trail & James, 2001) were reviewed, and four focus group interviews were conducted with consumers and facility/event managers. Following the item generation process, an expert panel review with three sport marketing researchers was conducted. Factors were updated, and items were revised and/or removed, and 44 items across eight sportscape factors were tested with scale administrations. Data on the 44 items were collected from university students, and the EFA result showed the sportscape consisted of six factors: Facility Access, Facility Layout, Seat Space, Facility Aesthetics, Technology, and History. Technology and History were new factors, which were not examined in previous sportscape studies (e.g., Greenwell et al., 2002a; Wakefield et al., 1996). A total of 27 items were retained after the item reduction process, and general sports consumers were recruited to test the remaining sportscape items in the main study. Initial testing of the revised scale resulted in the removal of seven additional items; a 20-item scale showed a moderate model fit and evidence of reliability and convergent validity. Predictive validity was also tested with three criterion constructs: service quality, brand experience, and stadium experience satisfaction. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) result provided evidence the sportscape influenced perceptions of service quality, and service quality in turn impacted stadium experience satisfaction. Sportscape also had a positive direct effect on brand experience, indicating that sports facilities are brand-related stimuli that are expected to induce internal and behavioral responses of consumers (Brakus et al., 2009). The revised sportscape scale showed evidence of reliability and content, convergent, and criterion-related validity, yet there was a lack of discriminant validity in the main study. This necessitates scale validation in various spectator sporting events to assess the measurement model, and improve the utility of the revised scale for future studies. The revised scale consists of 10 items from the original scale (Wakefield et al. 1996) and 10 new items that were developed based on the literature review and focus group interviews. With both existing and new items included, the revised scale provides a measure of consumers' perceptions of stadium quality not only as a service environment, but also as a branded environment where consumers have unique and memorable experiences. The revised Sportscape encompasses both functional and experiential aspects of sports facilities, and can be further utilized to examine the influences of sports facilities on consumers., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Sport Management in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., June 29, 2021., Includes bibliographical references., Jeffrey D. James, Professor Directing Dissertation; Jaejin Lee, University Representative; James Du, Committee Member; Amy C. H. Kim, Committee Member.
New Approaches of Differential Gene Expression Analysis and Cancer Immune Evasion Mechanism Identification
New Approaches of Differential Gene Expression Analysis and Cancer Immune Evasion Mechanism Identification
Background: Genomic and epigenomic data analyses has been a popular research area in the 21st century. Common research problems include detecting differentially expressed genes between groups, clustering and classification using genomic data in order to study the heterogeneity of a disease, and dividing a sequence of measurements along a genome into segments to identify different functional regions of the genome. This study gives a comprehensive investigation of the aforementioned tasks, with emphasis on developing new computational methodologies. Normalization is an important data preparation step in gene expression analyses, in order to remove various systematic noise, therefore reduce sample variance and increase the power of subsequent statistical analyses. On the other hand, variance reduction is made possible by borrowing information across all genes, including differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and outliers, which will inevitably introduce bias to the data. A question of interest is how to avoid inflation of type I error rate and loss of statistical power incurred by this bias. Breast cancer (BRCA) can escape immune surveillance using 6 known evasion mechanisms, yet the complexity of combination of these mechanisms used by subsets of human BRCA patients is not fully understood. In the era of immunotherapy and personalized medication, there is an urgent need for advancing the knowledge of immune evasion clusters (IEC) in BRCA and identifying reliable biomarkers, which is essential for better understanding of patients’ response to immunotherapies and for rational clinical trial design of combination immunotherapies. Identification of functional enriched regions of a genome often requires dividing a sequence of measurements along the genome into segments where adjacent segments have different properties (e.g. mean values). Despite dozens of algorithms developed to address this issue, accuracy and computational efficiency still need to be improved, to tackle both existing and emerging segmentation problems in genomic and epigenomic research. Results: In chapter 1 of this study we propose a new differential gene expression analysis pipeline super-delta, that pairs a modified t-test derived based on large sample theory with a robust multivariate extension of global normalization, designed to minimize the bias introduced by DEGs. In simulation studies, Super-delta was compared to four commonly used normalization methods: global, median-IQR, quantile, and cyclic loess normalization, and shown to have better statistical power with tighter type I error control. We then applied all methods to a microarray gene expression dataset on BRCA patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Super-delta was able to identify marginally more DEGs than its competitors, in addition to the substantial overlap of DEGs identified by all of them. Appropriate adaptations are under active development to make this procedure framework incorporated with RNA-Seq data and more general between-group comparison problems. In chapter 2, we developed a sequential biclustering (SBiC) method based on existing biclustering approach using the plaid model and applied it to the log2 normalized RNA-seq data of immune related genes of BRCA patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified seven clusters for 81% of the studied samples. We found that 78.8% of these samples evade through TGF-β immunosuppression, 57.75% through DcR3 counterattack, 48% through CTLA4, and 27.8% through PD-1. Interestingly, combination of TGF-β and DcR3 was pronounced in 57.75% of patients and evasion through DcR3 was exclusive to the lobular invasive subgroup. In addition, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients split equally into 2 clusters: one with impaired antigen presentation and another with high leukocyte recruitment but a combination of 4 evasion mechanisms. We also identified biomarkers that play important roles in distinguishing immune evasion mechanisms. These findings provide a better understanding of patients’ response to immunotherapies and shed light to rational design of novel combination immunotherapies. In chapter 3, We designed an efficient algorithm called iSeg, for segmentation of genomic and epigenomic profiles. It first utilizes dynamic programming to identify candidate significant segments, then uses a novel data structure based on coupled balanced binary trees to detect overlapping significant segments and update them simultaneously during searching and refinement stages. Merging of significant segments are performed at the end to generate the final set of segments. The algorithm can serve as a general computational framework that works with different model assumptions of the data. As a general procedure, it can segment different types of genomic and epigenomic data, such as DNA copy number variation, nucleosome occupancy, and (differential) nuclease sensitivity. We evaluated iSeg using both simulated and experimental datasets and showed that it performs satisfactorily when compared with some popular methods, which often employ more sophisticated statistical models. Implemented in C++, iSeg is very computationally efficient, well suited for long sequences and large number of input data profiles., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Statistics in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester 2018., Date of Defense: July 11, 2018., Keywords: differential gene expression analysis, immune evasion mechanism, robust data normalization, segmentation, sequential biclustering, Super-delta, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Jinfeng Zhang, Professor Directing Dissertation; Qing-Xiang (Amy) Sang, University Representative; Qing Mai, Committee Member; Yiyuan She, Committee Member.
New Birth, New World
New Birth, New World
This dissertation defamiliarizes early "evangelicalism" as a sturdy set of culturally siloed theological convictions. Historians of the so-called "Great Awakening" or "Evangelical Revival" have often distinguished awakeners by belief. Following David Bebbington's decades-old "evangelical quadrilateral," scores of scholars have characterized the movement through participants' ideas about the Bible, Jesus's crucifixion, personal conversion, and missionary activity. In most instances, foregrounding theology has privileged the polished perspective of well-educated clergymen who coordinated epistolary networks, determined publication strategies, and, if needed, redacted laypersons' testimonies. While theology is necessary to understanding this movement, we must acknowledge how early evangelical ministers and laypeople understood their world—including their faith—through natural landscapes, bodily gestures, voices, and buildings. This dissertation pursues an analysis of early evangelicalism that grounds the movement in lived experience, displaying how participants' yearning for "new birth" prompted their creation of an entirely new religious sensorium. By rooting my project in the spatial, sonic, and corporeal traits of "this new Religion," as one English contemporary put it, I join recent historiography interested in the various ways "evangelicalism" has delimited and mobilized various social communities. By examining their "hellish Shouts," "Destortions & Convulsions," and worship in "obscure places," I argue that everyday awakeners in colonial America, England, Scotland, and Wales eschewed the material cornerstones of British whiteness and relocated Protestant experience to spaces and soundways long understood as Indian, black, and uncivilized. By temporarily stripping British Atlantic Protestantism of its spatial, sonic, and bodily scaffolding, I contend that first- and second-generation evangelicals "democratized" Christian experience long before the rise of political populism in late-eighteenth-century America., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Religion in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., April 4, 2022., Includes bibliographical references., John Corrigan, Professor Directing Dissertation; Sarah Eyerly, University Representative; Michael McVicar, Committee Member; Jamil Drake, Committee Member.
New Community School
New Community School
Recently museums have begun to feature public programming that engages new audiences, they partner with a number of diverse community organizations, and they put the focus of their efforts on education. With these new focuses they have changed from didactic institutions to places where the visitor may confirm his experience, and at times may add his own voice to the discussion. This shift in focus has been swift, and scholarship is only beginning to catch up with the values being expressed in the profession. It is my intention to offer a history of educational philosophy that is relevant and useful for museum professionals by closely examining two historical lines of thought. Progressive education provides a framework that museums can use to model their educational programming. Creating hands-on programming, and focusing on the individuality of the learner are important aspects of progressive educations that museum professionals can use for their own programming. The idea of the community school focuses on partnerships, the use of the physical building, and bringing a number of resources together in one place. This set of ideas follows the paths that museums use to receive funding and strengthen their relationships within their local community. Local history museums have begun to use these all ideas, and focusing their attention on similar work done in the past is an important step for the profession. Therefore these two concepts provide a historically relevant and important background for present day museum programming., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of American and Florida Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2008., Date of Defense: March 31, 2008., Keywords: Constructivism, Educational History, Community School, Progressive Education, Museum Education, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Neil Jumonville, Professor Directing Thesis; Wayne Wiegand, Committee Member; Jennifer Koslow, Committee Member.
New Dynamical Explanation for the Abrupt Temperature Rise in the Beginning of the Holocene
New Dynamical Explanation for the Abrupt Temperature Rise in the Beginning of the Holocene
The abrupt temperature rise in the beginning of the Holocene is the most dramatic climatic change of the last 80,000 years. It is suggested here that the change is due to the abrupt opening of the Bering Strait which we hypothesize was initially jammed with icebergs, common during the termination of the last glaciation. Once sea-level rose beyond a critical point, the dam broke allowing low salinity water (which dominated the Atlantic during the Younger Dryas) to be flushed out of the Atlantic. This then, allowed the global wind field to force more Southern Ocean water into the Atlantic. A new analytical coupled ocean-atmosphere model was developed and applied to the North Atlantic, in an attempt to quantify the temperature change due to the opening and closing of the Bering Strait. Heat, salt and mass are all conserved within a box in the North Atlantic. A convection condition allows water to enter the deep layer, and the ocean and atmosphere are connected through their Ekman layers. Restarting convection, through the opening of the Bering Strait, increases mean oceanic and atmospheric temperatures by 2-4 ºC and 14-17 ºC, respectively. These values are favorably compared to those found in both the CEREGE alkenone and GISP II Greenland ice core records. The temporary damming/jamming of the Bering Strait due to large icebergs was examined using a simple laboratory box model. Results show the stability of the dam to be dependent on the rate of sea level rise, which at 1 cm yr -1, should be sufficiently slow to allow a temporary dam to exist for several thousands of years. Sea ice probably fused icebergs together, and through ridging could have created a 30-40 m vertical ice wall., Submitted Note: A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Oceanography in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2006., Date of Defense: July 21, 2006., Keywords: Deep-Water Formation, Meridional Overturning Cell, Heinrich Events, Temporary Daming, Climate Stability, Convection, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Doron Nof, Professor Directing Dissertation; Christopher Hunter, Outside Committee Member; William Burnett, Committee Member; Allan J. Clarke, Committee Member; Georges L. Weatherly, Committee Member; James J. O’Brien, Committee Member.
New Examination of Service Loyalty
New Examination of Service Loyalty
The current research is undertaken to gain a better understanding of the formation of customer loyalty and the effects that loyalty has on customer outcome behaviors. As a result of a review of the literature and two empirical studies, a loyalty measurement model is identified that identifies four types of service loyalty (i.e. cognitive, affective, conative, and action). The loyalty measurement model and subsequent structural research model are tested on a sample of 2,187 consumers from such wide-ranging service industries as movie theatres, dry cleaners, sporting events, hair salons/barber shops, auto repair, and physicians. The development and validation of the loyalty scale is the first contribution of the current research. In addition, the antecedent effects of service quality, satisfaction, value, trust, justice, and risk on loyalty are considered. The results of the current research suggest that overall perceptions of service quality, satisfaction, value, and trust all significantly drive customers' attitudinal loyalty. Furthermore, the results indicate that identification, exclusive consideration, advocacy (WOM), strength of preference, and share of wallet behaviors are direct outcomes of service loyalty. The findings also suggest that gender, age, and income are demographic variables that moderate the relationships between loyalty and its antecedents. Likewise, the level of complexity, justice, and risk inherent in the service delivery also moderate the strength of the relationships between the antecedents to loyalty and loyalty. Finally, the research identifies the differential effects of service type and type of consumption on the relationships identified in the research model., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Marketing in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2005., Date of Defense: July 1, 2005., Keywords: Trust, Satisfaction, Structural Equation Modeling, Value, Services Marketing, Service Loyalty, Quality, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: J. Joseph Cronin, Jr., Professor Directing Dissertation; William A. Christiansen, Outside Committee Member; Larry Giunipero, Committee Member; Michael K. Brady, Committee Member.
New Formulation of 1-D Persistent Homology via Correspondence Modules
New Formulation of 1-D Persistent Homology via Correspondence Modules
We develop a unifying framework for the treatment of various types of persistent homology using the notion of correspondence modules. In this formulation, morphisms between vector spaces are partial linear relations, as opposed to linear mappings. In the one-dimensional case, among other things, this allows us to: (i) treat persistence modules and zigzag modules as algebraic objects of the same type; (ii) give a categorical formulation of zigzag structures that allows a continuous parameter; and (iii) construct barcodes associated with a filtered space that are richer in geometric information. A structural analysis of 1D persistence modules is carried out at the level of sections of correspondence modules that yield sheaf-like structures, termed persistence sheaves. Under some tameness hypotheses, we prove interval decomposition theorems for persistence sheaves and correspondence modules, as well as an isometry theorem for persistence diagrams obtained from interval decompositions of persistence sheaves. Applications of correspondence modules in levelset persistence and $1$D slicing of $2$D persistence modules are introduced. Also, a Mayer-Vietoris sequence in correspondence module category is formalized., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Mathematics in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., June 16, 2020., Correspondence modules, Persistence sheaves, Persistent homology, Topological data analysis, Includes bibliographical references., Washington Mio, Professor Directing Dissertation; Xiaoqiang Wang, University Representative; Philip Bowers, Committee Member; Thomas Needham, Committee Member.
New Framework of Web Credibility Assessment and an Exploratory Study of Older Adults' Information Behavior on the Web
New Framework of Web Credibility Assessment and an Exploratory Study of Older Adults' Information Behavior on the Web
This dissertation research aims to provide a better understanding of people's credibility assessment of online information (i.e., Web credibility assessment), which is an important part of their information behavior. In particular, this research focuses on older adults as a research population as they are a less studied user group in the literature on information credibility. Considering the ever increasing presence of older adults on the Web and their needs for health information in their daily lives, this research explores older adults' credibility assessment of online health information within the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS). The methodology employed in this research consists of a qualitative meta-study (Phase I) and semi-structured interviews (Phase II). In Phase I, the researcher analyzed 84 primary research reports on information credibility, identifying conceptual typologies of important facets of credibility assessment such as conceptualization, operationalization, variability (user characteristics and contexts), and process. Based on these conceptual typologies, the researcher proposed a new, extended framework of Web credibility assessment, named WC framework, that contains three main components, Assessment of WC—i.e., conceptualization and operationalization to measure Web credibility; Variability of WC—i.e., variables regarding individual and context; and Process of WC—i.e., the overall process of Web credibility assessment. In Phase II, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with twenty-one older adults whose ages ranged from 61 to 80 (M = 70.3) in the manner of one-on-one, in-person. The purposeful sampling methods, such as convenience sampling and snowball sampling, were used to recruit older adults who meet the sampling criteria of the study: age (55 years old or older), residency (Florida residents for an in-person interview), and Internet use experience. Also, a prescreen test was carried out via a telephone interview to make sure that the participant's cognitive function was adequate for the study. Those who met all the sampling criteria and passed the prescreen test were recruited for an in-person interview which lasted around 45 minutes. The interview data revealed that older adults needed health/wellness information regarding medication and supplements, symptoms of and cures for specific diseases, medical quality assurance, health insurance, nutrition, and exercise. In seeking health information, they used both interpersonal and online sources. As for the interpersonal sources, the research participants mentioned medical professionals (e.g., doctors and physicians), partners, family, and friends. On the Web, they referenced information from non-profit (i.e., non-commercial) institutions' websites such as government websites (e.g., NIH, CDC) and university hospitals' websites (e.g., Johns Hopkins Medicine, Harvard Medical School). The most frequently mentioned commercial website was WebMD. Depending on the purposes of health information seeking, some interviewees mentioned that they used pharmacists' websites (e.g., Walgreens and CVS). When judging the credibility of online health information, they employed various cues/markers and heuristics that are related to the attributes of the operator (i.e., source), content (i.e., message), and design (i.e., media) of Web resources. Based on the new framework developed in Phase I, the informants' Web credibility assessment process was characterized with the two stages: initial and final evaluations. Lastly, both theoretical and empirical implications of the research and future research directions were discussed. Specifically, the new Web credibility assessment framework (i.e., the WC framework) advanced our understanding of the conceptualization of Web credibility and can be used as a knowledge resource in developing context specific credibility assessment models as well as information system interfaces that provide effective support for information credibility evaluation by users. Likewise, findings from the semi-structured interviews can inform online information system developers and librarians about how older users search for online health information and how they assess its credibility. Ultimately, the findings of this research should help the development of more effective online systems, services, and, training modules that are aligned with the online information behaviors of this rapidly growing, important user population—i.e., older adults., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the School of Information in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester 2015., Date of Defense: July 7, 2015., Keywords: credibility assessment, information behavior, information credibility, older adults, Web credibility, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Besiki Stvilia, Professor Directing Dissertation; Neil Charness, University Representative; Kathleen Burnett, Committee Member; Lorraine Mon, Committee Member.
New Investigations into Prehistoric Corinth
New Investigations into Prehistoric Corinth
The Neolithic was a critical period in human history, when the establishment of agriculture, sedentary society, and craft specialization all took place. Despite an abundance of material from sites throughout Southeastern Europe during this period, overall little attention has been paid to elucidating connections between populations that were made across large geographic distances. This dissertation presents the results of new research concerning the Neolithic period in Southeast Europe focusing on a particular type of vessel known as the Neolithic rhyton as a mechanism through which to explore social continuity over a large geographic area. The Neolithic rhyton is an unusual – and therefore readily identifiable – shape that is broadly designated a “ritual object,” though its use is debated and as yet unknown. This vessel shape appears along the Adriatic coast, the Balkans, and into Italy during the Middle Neolithic (ca. 5500–4800 BCE), and in the Mainland of Greece during the Late Neolithic period (ca. 5300–4200 BCE). Conducted over a five-year period, this project focuses on reevaluating the fragments of Neolithic rhyta excavated at the Greek site of Ancient Corinth between 1896 and 2016, using both macroscopic techniques and pXRF analysis to help understand and establish Corinth’s social and economic connections regionally and supra-regionally during the Neolithic. The results of this project will help to clarify Neolithic trade and exchange networks on various scales: tracking similarities in style, technology, and decoration help to prove the existence of communication between populations. Investigations carried out at Corinth have so far yielded 199 fragments of rhyta. Of the 29 known sites that have produced rhyta in Mainland Greece, the largest number from another single site is at Elateia, where excavators have found 17, indicating the centrality of Corinth within this Neolithic network that includes areas of the Balkans, the Adriatic coast, and the Mediterranean. The outcomes of this research will further the discussion concerning ritual and its role within a continuity of practice in during the Neolithic period of Europe, with Corinth as its focal point., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Classics in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., March 18, 2021., Includes bibliographical references., Daniel J. Pullen, Professor Directing Dissertation; David Levenson, University Representative; Christopher A. Pfaff, Committee Member; Andrea U. DeGiorgi, Committee Member.
New Materials Grown from Ca/Li Flux
New Materials Grown from Ca/Li Flux
Molten metal fluxes are useful in materials synthesis. Dissolution in molten metal activates reactants at temperatures well below their melting point. Lower temperatures and the modified energetics in a flux increase the possibility of isolation of complex metastable or kinetically stabilized phases. In contrast to the powders often obtained by conventional solid state synthesis methods, the solution phase character of flux reactions promotes the growth of crystals, which are required for accurate structural and electronic characterization. Ca/Li flux solvates lightweight refractory elements such as carbon and boron. It also dissolves many ionic compounds such as CaH2, Ca3N2, and LiF. This allows for synthesis of phases ranging from strongly delocalized intermetallics to complex salts. In particular, dissolution of CaH2 makes Ca/Li flux a very promising medium for growth of new metal hydride phases. These hydride compounds may have great potential as hydrogen storage materials. The ionic products such as Zintl and complex salt phases have interesting electronic properties because these classes of compounds are usually semiconductors. Reactions of light main group elements (B, C, Si) and ionic compounds (CaH2, CaO, Li3N) have been carried out in Ca/Li flux. Several Zintl phase hydrides including LiCa2C3H and LiCa7Si3H3 have been produced. These compounds are of interest because of their new crystal structures and their release of H2 gas in decomposition reactions. Structures are discussed in detail to explain the different bonding environments in these compounds. Efforts to explore and eliminate the oxide and hydride contaminants in the reactive flux have also netted interesting results. A new boride carbide was found using distilled flux., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science., Degree Awarded: Summer, 2011., Date of Defense: June 22, 2011., Keywords: Flux Synthesis, Density of States, X-ray Diffraction, Hydrogen Storage Materials, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Susan Latturner, Professor Directing Thesis; Albert E. Stiegman, Committee Member; Oliver Steinbock, Committee Member.
New Methods for the Acquisition and Processing of Solid-State NMR Spectra
New Methods for the Acquisition and Processing of Solid-State NMR Spectra
Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) is a powerful tool for the study of chemical structure and dynamics. The interactions that manifest in NMR spectra are anisotropic (i.e., orientation dependent) in origin, often resulting in inhomogeneous broadening that can yield spectra exceeding ca. 250 kHz in breadth; such spectra are often referred to as ultra-wideline (UW) NMR spectra. In many cases, UWNMR spectra cannot be acquired using conventional methods and rectangular radiofrequency (RF) pulses – rather, specialized pulses and techniques must be implemented. Furthermore, the large suite of high-resolution methods based on magic-angle spinning (MAS) are generally unsuitable for the acquisition of UWNMR spectra. Frequency-swept (FS) pulses are amplitude- and phase-modulated pulses that can irradiate NMR frequencies over large bandwidths. One of these is the wideband uniform-rate smooth-truncation (WURST) pulse, which features a linear effective frequency sweep. WURST pulses are used in the WURST-Carr-Purcell/Meiboom-Gill (WURST-CPMG) and broadband adiabatic inversion-cross polarization (BRAIN-CP) pulse sequences, which have been shown to be effective for the acquisition of UWNMR spectra of stationary (static) samples. These sequences have limitations, and to date, their capabilities have not been fully explored, nor have they been described from a theoretical point of view in a comprehensive manner. Signal processing is an integral component of pulsed-Fourier transform NMR spectroscopy, and comprises many protocols for enhancing spectral sensitivity and resolution. There has been much interest in advanced spectral processing methods such as alternate basis transformations (i.e., besides Fourier encoding), statistical analyses (e.g., singular value decomposition, SVD, and principal component analysis, PCA), numerical regression (e.g., non-negative least squares), and the use of deep learning and neural networks. Such methodologies are now routinely implemented in imaging and multidimensional solution NMR, but are seldom explored in SSNMR. This thesis describes the development of new methods for the acquisition and advanced processing of conventional, wideline, and UW SSNMR spectra, including: (i) the design of new pulses and pulse sequences with optimal control theory (OCT); (ii) the modification of existing pulse sequences for UWNMR under MAS conditions; (iii) achieving signal enhancements with CPMG pulse sequences via the suppression of weak homonuclear dipolar coupling interactions under static and MAS conditions; (iv) the application of the BRAIN-CP pulse sequence to integer-spin nuclei, along with a thorough theoretical treatment; (v) rapid and robust measurements of longitudinal relaxation time constants (T1) and T1 anisotropies from UWNMR spectra under static conditions; (vi) the development and application of advanced processing methods for resolving UWNMR relaxation data with inverse Laplace transforms; and (vii) the development of a Python library for denoising 1D and 2D NMR spectra with SVD, PCA, and wavelet transforms. It is hoped that these methods will open up the Periodic Table of elements to increasingly routine exploration by SSNMR spectroscopy, aiding researchers in chemistry, biochemistry, materials science, and physics with advanced molecular-level characterization of their materials., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., March 31, 2022., NMR, Pulse Sequence Design, Signal Processing, Solid-State NMR, Spin Dynamics, Includes bibliographical references., Robert W. Schurko, Professor Directing Dissertation; Richard Bertram, University Representative; Yan-Yan Hu, Committee Member; Wei Yang, Committee Member.
New Methods in Tornado Risk and Vulnerability Assessments
New Methods in Tornado Risk and Vulnerability Assessments
This dissertation includes a series of studies that present innovative methodologies to improve tornado risk and vulnerability assessments. Limitations of the historical tornado dataset are well known and relate to inconsistencies in data collection procedures, rating assessments, updates in technology, and public awareness. The limitations make it difficult to accurately evaluate tornado risk and vulnerability. Thus, the research presented in this dissertation aims to 1) improve tornado risk assessments using the historical dataset by accounting for known non-meteorological factors and 2) enhance tornado vulnerability assessments by utilizing a new dataset containing more precise damage survey data. This work includes three individual studies, two focused on risk and one on vulnerability, using different geographic scales. Tornado occurrence rates computed from the available reports are biased low relative to the unknown true rates. A method to estimate the annual statewide probability of getting hit by a tornado improves this low bias by using the average report density as a function of distance from nearest city center. The method is demonstrated on Kansas and then applied to 15 other tornado-prone states from Nebraska to Tennessee over the period 1950--2011. The adjusted rates are significantly higher than the raw rates and thus, the return periods are less than previously thought (closer to 1000 years). The expected annual number of people exposed to tornadoes has also increased for every state. The evaluation of tornado occurrences is improved using a statistical model that produces a smoothed regional-scale climatology. The model is applied to data aggregated at the county level, including annual population, annual tornado counts, and an index of terrain roughness. The model has a term to capture the smoothed frequency relative to the state average and is used to examine additional hypotheses concerning relationships of tornado activity with terrain roughness and County Warning Area. Tornado reports are found to increase by 13\% for a two-fold increase in population across Kansas after accounting for improvements in rating procedures. The pattern of spatially correlated errors also shows Kansas tornado activity to be consistent with the dryline climatology. The model is significantly improved by adding terrain roughness, which has a negative relationship with tornado activity and its flexibility is demonstrated by fitting it to data from Illinois, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Ohio. Advancements in technology have improved the collection of tornado damage survey data which can be used to enhance vulnerability assessments. The National Weather Service (NWS) Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT) contains the most extensive GIS-based damage survey data available to the public which provides more precise damage path areas. These data are used with socioeconomic data in two statistical models. The models are developed to determine which factors are significant predictors of the incidence and magnitude of casualties while accounting for maximum EF Scale rating, total path area, and population density at the storm level. Percent unemployment is a significant predictor and produces the best model for the incidence of at least one tornado casualty. Although percent elderly generates the best model for predicting the magnitude of casualties, it is only marginally significant and its relationship is negative. The Southeast has the highest averages of the sensitivity factors considering all of the tornado events. These results highlight the need for heightened tornado awareness and preparedness as our exposure to these events increases due to our population continuing to expand. As demonstrated in this work, these methods can be used to enhance regional/local tornado forecasts, insurance risk estimates, public policy, urban planning, and emergency management and mitigation with the detection of spatiotemporal patterns in tornado activity (due to variations in climate) and vulnerability (due to changes in population demographics and urban sprawl). They can be employed to examine other geographic locations on multiple scales. They can also be adapted to study the patterns and relationships of other spatial and temporal phenomena., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Geography in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester 2016., Date of Defense: April 8, 2016., Keywords: Climatology, Risk, Statistics, Tornadoes, Vulnerability, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: James Elsner, Professor Directing Dissertation; Robert Hart, University Representative; Christopher Uejio, Committee Member; Stephanie Pau, Committee Member; Lorilee Medders, Committee Member.
New Numerical Procedures for the Lagrangian Analysis of Hierarchical Block-Structured Reactive Flow Simulations
New Numerical Procedures for the Lagrangian Analysis of Hierarchical Block-Structured Reactive Flow Simulations
Chemical evolution of stellar plasma is one of the most critical components of computational models in stellar astrophysics. Nuclear abundance distributions resulting from chains of nuclear reactions serve as a key comparison tool against observations, used to further constrain models. To that end, we focus on improving the accuracy of model abundances. In most cases, abundances are obtained in the course of hydrodynamic simulations performed on Eulerian meshes. Unfortunately, those models are subject to the unphysical mixing of nuclear species due to numerical diffusion effects. For more reliable nucleosynthesis calculations, mass motions are described using passively advected Lagrangian tracer particles. These particles represent fluid elements, recording their thermodynamic histories which are subsequently used to drive detailed nucleosynthesis calculations in a post-processing procedure performed with large number of relevant isotopes. Accuracy of nucleosynthesis calculations strongly depends on the accurate coupling between fluid represented on the Eulerian mesh and tracer particles. The coupling involves both interpolation of Eulerian data to particles as well as integrating equations of motion of particles. Both steps contribute numerical errors resulting in divergence of particle tracks from fluid streamlines. Here we propose a new particle advection scheme driven by only the hydrodynamics, replacing the interpolation step of particle motion and show preliminary results. We also introduce an interpolation method for mapping our post-processed nucleosynthesis results back onto our Eulerian mesh. Spatial convergence studies are performed for the Eulerian hydrodynamic nucleosynthesis results and the remapped, post-processed Lagrangian results using a reactive Hawley-Zabusky flow., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Scientific Computing in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester 2018., Date of Defense: July 16, 2018., Keywords: Astrophysics, Nucleosynthesis, Particle Meshes, Supernovae, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Tomasz Plewa, Professor Directing Dissertation; Mark Sussman, University Representative; Gordon Erlebacher, Committee Member; Sachin Shanbhag, Committee Member; Ming Ye, Committee Member.

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