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Linguistic and cultural influences on differential item functioning for Hispanic examinees in a standardized secondary level achievement test
Linguistic and cultural influences on differential item functioning for Hispanic examinees in a standardized secondary level achievement test
The issue of differential item functioning (DIF) in standardized tests has increasingly generated interest in the measurement and testing communities. An item is said to contain DIF if examinees of equal proficiency from different gender, ethnic or other groups have an unequal probability of responding correctly to the item., Although the majority of DIF research has focused on its identification through statistical procedures, recent published studies have addressed the arguably more important issue of causes of DIF. To date, however, most studies of causes of DIF have been concerned with post-secondary situations., The present study identified sources of DIF within a widely used secondary school achievement battery. Responses on the Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension sections of the Stanford Achievement Test were obtained from 1580 White and 3223 Hispanic eighth graders in Dade County, Florida. A quantitative technique was used to detect items exhibiting DIF. Once these items were identified, a review panel of expert bilingual judges examined them in terms of linguistic and cultural factors associated to DIF between Hispanics and Whites., Results suggest that, when comparing Hispanic and White students of the same ability, the use in test items of true cognate words frequently used in Spanish will favor the performance of Hispanics. In contrast, several conditions may favor Whites, including the use of non true cognate words infrequently used in English, linguistic complexity, idiomatic expressions derived from technical language, and poetry. Moreover, words and phrases with a special cultural meaning for one of the groups will favor members of that group (White or Hispanic) and, the use of settings for which Hispanic students are likely to be less familiar with will favor the performance of Whites., Findings from the study confirm the need to stress certain areas in the instruction of Hispanic students. Even though DIF is not necessarily indicative of item bias, its appearance in test items might be a sign of instructional deficiencies. Findings also should alert test developers to distinguish between construct-relevant DIF and DIF associated with test invalidity., Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 54-09, Section: A, page: 3411., Major Professor: Albert C. Oosterhof., Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1993.
Linkage between the Extreme Cold Air Outbreaks and Rossby-Wave Breaking over          Asia
Linkage between the Extreme Cold Air Outbreaks and Rossby-Wave Breaking over Asia
The statistical relationship between Rossby-wave breaking and extreme cold air outbreaks (CAO) is investigated for East Asia. Two typical life cycles of upper-level Rossby waves during these CAOs are identified. The extreme CAOs are selected using a quantitative CAO index, which is defined by the integral of equatorward cold air mass flux below 280K isentropic surfaces. Rossby-wave breaking events are identified as anticyclonic and cyclonic according to the orientation of breaking. The breaking extent is calculated as the ratio of longitudes with breaking to the whole longitude range in each of four different regions. The composite analysis shows a significant increase in anticyclonic breaking extent upstream and cyclonic breaking extent downstream during western CAOs, and a decrease in cyclonic breaking extent midstream during eastern CAOs, respectively. During the demise days of extreme CAOs, the breaking extent returns to the level before onset. On the other hand, the average eastern and western CAO indices are notably higher during the days of cyclonic breaking. For the days of anticyclonic breaking, both CAOs tend to have higher indices when the breaking is upstream and lower indices when the breaking is downstream. Chi-Square tests of independence reveal that extreme western and eastern CAOs have prominent dependent relation with Rossby-wave breaking. The former synchronizes well with anticyclonic breaking upstream and cyclonic breaking downstream, while the latter lags the cyclonic breaking in the midstream for about three days. The composited potential vorticity fields during East Asia extreme CAOs illustrates two archetypes of wave life cycles. One is the anticyclonic wave breaking upstream of the CAOs and jet core; the other is the cyclonic wave breaking downstream of the jet and CAOs., A Thesis submitted to the Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science., November 13, 2020., Includes bibliographical references., Mark A. Bourassa, Professor Co-Directing Thesis; Jeffrey Chagnon, Professor Co-Directing Thesis; Zhaohua Wu, Committee Member; Ming Cai, Committee Member.
Linked Cluster Expansion of the Many-Body Path-Integral
Linked Cluster Expansion of the Many-Body Path-Integral
In this thesis we have combined the idea of cluster expansion and path integration to develop the quantum version of cluster and virial expansion. We derive a diagrammatic series expansion for different thermodynamic quantities like free energy, chemical potential and pair distribution function and show that the diagrammatic expansion is linked. This expansion in n-body clusters can also be thought of as a power series expansion in the particle density. We first present the results for the pair distribution function by evaluating it up to a first few orders in particle density and show that there is systematic order-by-order improvement. Second, we use a Pade` resummation scheme in momentum space to extrapolate to infinite order. This scheme is constructed in such a way so that it yields the calculated order by order expansion terms and the classical limit correctly. We have also used our proposed quantum version of Hypernetted-chain (HNC) equations to calculate the observables by solving self-consistently a set of integral equations which sum a certain class of contributing diagrams which resemble a “hypernetted” network. We have tested our summation schemes on a Lennard-Jones and a hard-sphere system containing distinguishable particles and our results agree very well with those obtained from the path-integral Monte Carlo simulation. We have also demonstrated the applicability to a system of identical particles by applying it to the bosonic system of 4He particles. Our method is easily applicable to the case of a short-range singular potential where the established analytical and semi-analytical tools of many-body perturbation theory and quantum statistical mechanics cannot be applied in a straightforward manner., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., April 7, 2020., Includes bibliographical references., Efstratios Manousakis, Professor Directing Dissertation; Naresh Dalal, University Representative; Vladimir Dobrosavljevic, Committee Member; Bernd A. Berg, Committee Member; David Van Winkle, Committee Member.
Linking Celebrity to Firm Performance
Linking Celebrity to Firm Performance
The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide an empirical test of the proposed theoretical link between the construct of celebrity, in an organizational context, and firm performance. The model proposed in this dissertation tests this link at both the individual- and firm-levels. As an exploratory study, this research showed evidence of initial, direct linkages between the socially constructed resource of celebrity and firm performance. The results also found firm celebrity to mediate the relationship between CEO celebrity and firm performance. A secondary purpose of this dissertation was to advance work on celebrity, in the organizational sciences, by providing a means for preliminary measurement of the construct in this context. In this dissertation, celebrity at the CEO and firm levels were measured using both archival and survey methodology. The findings of this dissertation suggest that celebrity CEOs may aid in building firm celebrity, but that the firm, as a celebrity, carries the focal weight in the minds of media audiences. In turn, the focal weight on firm celebrity carries a greater impact on firm performance. Moreover, the findings provide support for future work to examine the "black box" between this specific strategic resource and firm performance. Lastly, this dissertation concludes with a discussion of the paper's limitations, contributions, and practical implications., Submitted Note: A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Management in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2008., Date of Defense: March 26, 2008., Keywords: Celebrity, Firm Performance, Multi-Level, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Gerald R. Ferris, Professor Directing Dissertation; Annette L. Ranft, Committee Member; Susan Fiorito, Outside Committee Member; James G. Combs, Committee Member; Bruce T. Lamont, Committee Member.
Linking communication with performance management in an applied setting
Linking communication with performance management in an applied setting
Using performance management techniques in business and industry has been a proven method for increasing desired behaviors under study. Casey (1990) and Wolf (1978) have both suggested additional outcome measures which need to be addressed if continued research is to be conducted in an effective manner. These include measures of social validity, cost of intervention, and measuring the correlation of both sales volume and sales-related behavior. This research project attempts to take into consideration all of the variables suggested above by conducting an applied study using performance management techniques and measuring the additional outcome measures., To test these suggestions, an applied research project was conducted in which employees of a national restaurant chain from the state of Florida were presented with a series of interventions designed to increase sales volume and sales-related behavior. Consumers were also polled as to their reactions about the behaviors which the employees were now practicing., The results are a study which has attempted to measure all areas of responsible applied research as promoted by Casey (1990) and Wolf (1978). It is hoped that this research project will demonstrate that these standards should be adhered to by all researchers while conducting current and future research., Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 56-03, Section: A, page: 0761., Major Professors: Jon Bailey; Barry Sapolsky., Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1994.
Links Between Early Social Capital and Later Academic Achievement in Hispanic Children
Links Between Early Social Capital and Later Academic Achievement in Hispanic Children
The purpose of this study was to examine the links between early social capital (kindergarten, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades) on later academic achievement (5th and 8th grade) in a sample of 900 Hispanic children. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten cohort where a focal child started kindergarten for the first time during the 1998-99 school year and for whom data were available through 8th grade. Four domains of social capital were explored: parental involvement with the school, parental involvement in the home, parenting practices and warmth, and intergenerational closure. Academic achievement was measured using IRT scores in reading/English, math, and science taken at the end of 5th and 8th grades. Regression analyses showed that after controlling for certain demographic characteristics and previous achievement (K through 3rd or 5th grades), the four domains of social capital did not strongly influence later academic achievement in 5th and 8th grade. Earlier intergenerational closure provided a small contribution to explaining better performance in science in the 5th grade. The results suggest that the strongest contribution to later academic success is earlier academic success. Future studies should explore other potential measures of social capital, as well as other sources of influence such as siblings, peers, and school personnel., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of Family and Child Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2013., Date of Defense: May 3, 2013., Keywords: academic achievement, ECLS-K, Hispanic children, social capital, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Kay Pasley, Professor Directing Thesis; Ann Mullis, Committee Member; Ithel Jones, Outside Committee Member.
Links between Adult Attachment and Sleep Disturbances
Links between Adult Attachment and Sleep Disturbances
This study examined facets of mindfulness as mediating the associations between anxious and avoidant attachment with sleep disturbances. In addition, the study tested whether the indirect links between anxious and avoidant attachment and sleep disturbances was strongest through the mindfulness facet acting with awareness. A sample of college students (N = 535; Mage = 20.17) completed measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, facets of mindfulness, and sleep disturbances. The study hypotheses were examined using mediation analyses and pairwise contrasts tests using structural equation modeling procedures. Results revealed the mindfulness facets nonreactivity and nonjudging significantly mediated the link between anxious attachment and sleep disturbances. Results also revealed the indirect paths from anxious attachment to sleep disturbances through the nonjudging and nonreactivity facets to be greater in magnitude than its direct association. The implications of study findings are discussed in relation to research and clinical practice and in consideration of the study limitations., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Family and Child Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., March 6, 2020., Includes bibliographical references., Jonathan G. Kimmes, Professor Directing Dissertation; John Taylor, University Representative; Lenore McWey, Committee Member; Ming Cui, Committee Member.
Lion Speaks
Lion Speaks
This narrative inquiry study illuminated the stories of Black men educational leaders who work to improve educational outcomes for other Black males. It began by exploring the concept of the Black male being perceived as a problem to be solved and explore the precarious relationship between the Black male and the educational system and society general. Utilizing Harper’s (2012) Anti-Deficit Achievement Framework, the researcher conducted interviews with 10 Black men educators and reviewed relevant documents that helped to elicit stories of how and why they come to engage in their current work, and what motivates them to continue. Findings indicated that in as much as the men had varied paths to their common vocation a recurring motivating theme was a sense of responsibility and desire to make a difference in the lives of young Black men., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education., February 2, 2021., Black Education, Black Male Educators, Black Male Initiatives, Educational Leadership, Higher Education, K-12 Education, Includes bibliographical references., Patrice M. Iatraola, Professor Directing Dissertation; Erik M. Hines, University Representative; Cameron C. Beatty, Committee Member; Robert A. Schwartz, Committee Member.
Lion of the Russian Army"
Lion of the Russian Army"
This study explores the life and military career of General Peter Bagration. A scion of the Georgian royal dynasty, he was reared in the exiled family in a small town in the periphery of the Russian Empire and rose from obscurity to the highest circles of the Russian society. He was undoubtedly one of the most prominent Russians of the time, achieving unprecedented fame and status. He lived only forty-seven years but dedicated thirty years of his life to the military service. He distinguished himself as master commander of rear and advance guards and was regarded as one of the best Russian commanders of the Napoleonic Wars. Bagration fought in every war Russia waged from 1794 to 1812 and successfully faced the great leaders of his epoch - Napoleon, Andre Masséna, Charles Nicholas Davout and others. However, despite his historical and military importance, Bagration still remains largely neglected. Little is known about Bagration's childhood and adolescence. Most of the volumes on Bagration describe his role in the 1812 Campaign and tend to embellish his exploits. This work aims to provide reader with an accurate portrait of one of the most prominent commanders of the Russian army. Bagration emerges as talented, patriotic general, admired by the army and society, yet of a violent and impetuous character tha often led to important miscalculations. Accepting Russia as his motherland, he served faithfully and died fighting to ensure its freedom., Submitted Note: A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of History in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester 2003., Date of Defense: October 27, 2003., Keywords: Russia, Napoleon, Bagration Alexander, Borodino, Austerlitz, Friedland, Eylau, Turkey, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Donald D. Horward, Professor Directing Dissertation; Patrick O’Sullivan, Outside Committee Member; Peter Garretson, Committee Member; Jonathan Grant, Committee Member; Michael Creswell, Committee Member.
Lipid And Lipoprotein Metabolism In Response To Treadmill Walking At Two Levels Of Caloric Expenditure: A Comparison Of Black And White American Men
Lipid And Lipoprotein Metabolism In Response To Treadmill Walking At Two Levels Of Caloric Expenditure: A Comparison Of Black And White American Men
The effect of acute exercise on blood lipids and lipoproteins has been examined and their response is believed to reflect the changes that occur as a result of chronic exercise training. The cross sectional differences between trained and untrained individuals and the results of longitudinal investigations suggest LDL particle size and distribution may be altered after acute exercise. Moreover, the response of the lipid and lipoprotein profile of Black men may be different than that of White men, owing to initial concentration differences or a genetic predisposition. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of expending 300 and 600 calories through treadmill walking at a moderate intensity (65% VO2max) on blood lipids and lipoproteins as compared to a non-exercise, control trial over the course of 72 hours. METHODS: Ten White and ten Black men participated in this study after being screened for strict inclusion criteria (including: parents/grandparents either Black or White and from the United States; sedentary, but otherwise healthy; VO2max 30-45ml⋅kg⋅min-1; and body fatness ¡Ü25%). Analysis of variance with repeated measures design was used (Group x Trial x Time). Blood was collected at Baseline (0hr), 12hr, 24hr, 48hr and 72hr for determination of blood lipid concentrations, LDL particle size, LDL distribution and CETPa. RESULTS: Black men of this investigation had higher HDL-C (49.4 vs 41.8 mg⋅dL-1), HDL3-C (35.1 vs 30.8 mg⋅dL-1) and CETPa (82.1 vs 52.8 pmol⋅ml-1⋅3hr-1) and lower TC (148.9 vs 177.1 mg⋅dL- 1), LDL-C (83.4 vs 116.3 mg⋅dL-1) and TC to HDL ratios (3.06 vs 4.46) than the White men (p<0.05) over the control period. There were no group differences detected in LDL particle size (White 25.63nm vs Black 25.79nm), LDL distribution (Zone 1, White 58.19% vs Black 64.71%; Zone 2, White 20.16% vs Black 16.31%; Zone 3, White 21.65% vs Black 18.98%), HDL2-C (White 11.5 vs Black 14.2 mg⋅dL-1), or TG (White 95.0 vs Black 79.4 mg⋅dL-1). Black and White men responded to acute exercise in similar fashion for these variables and therefore our statistical model collapsed the data into a single group by trial and over time. Exercise did not statistically alter TC, LDL-C, LDL particle size, LDL distribution, HDL2-C or CETPa in the 72 hours following each exercise bout. However, HDL-C was increased 6.2%, 10.1% and 5.8%, HDL3-C was increased 9.8%, 13.8% and 9.8%, while TG were reduced 24.8%, 27.3% and 22.4% at 12hr, 24hr and 48hr, respectively from the Base value of the 600 Kcal Trial. Additionally, TG were reduced 18.0% at 12hr from the baseline value of the 300 Kcal Trial. CONCLUSION: These results are the first to indicate that acute treadmill walking at moderate intensity of sufficient caloric expenditure modified HDL-C, HDL3-C and TG in Black men. No differences were determined in the manner in which Black and White American men statistically increased HDL-C and HDL3-C and reduced TG after acute exercise. In addition, there was no impact of acute exercise on TC, LDL-C, HDL2-C, CETPa, LDL particle size or LDL distribution in either group. However, these data suggest that Black/White differences exist in CETPa, where Black men have greater activity of this enzyme, Dissertation, PhD
Lipid characterization and ecological studies on free-living amoebae and a Legionella-amoebic association
Lipid characterization and ecological studies on free-living amoebae and a Legionella-amoebic association
Free-living amoebae were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for ester-linked phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and sterols. Acanthamoebae, Hartmannella, and Naegleria could be classified by phospholipid composition at the genus and species levels. Major PLFAs for Acanthamoebae consisted of 18:0, 18:1s, 18:2s, and 20 carbon polyenoics at 5%, 56%, 4%, and 18% of total PLFA, respectively. Hartmannella PLFAs were 16:1s, 18:1s, 16:0, and 18:2w6 at 37%, 39%, 13% and 3%, respectively. Naegleria PLFAs were composed of long-chain 26- and 28- carbon fatty acids, 16:1s, 17:1s, and 18:1w at 10%, 15%, 19%, and 20%, respectively. Sterol compositions separated the free-living amoebae at the genus level. Ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol were the major sterols of Acanthamoebae. Hartmannella sterols were stigmasta-7,22-dienol, stigmastanol, and stigmast-7-enol. Major sterols for Naegleria were ergosterol and ergosta-5,7-dienol., Samples of Legionella, axenically-grown Naegleria, Legionella-infected Naegleria, and infected Naegleria cured by treatment with gentamycin were analyzed for PLFA, sterols, phospholipid classes, and unextractable, covalently-bonded hydroxy fatty acids found in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-OHFA). Legionella biomarkers were two uncommon branched monoenoic PLFAs (i16:1, a17:1) and LPS-OHFA (3OH-i14:0; 3OH-n14:0; 2,3DIOH-i14:0; 2,3DIOH-a14:0). Legionella biomarkers were observed in both trophozoite and cyst forms of the infected amoebae. These biomarkers were not detected in axenically-grown amoebae or in gentamycin-cured amoebae. Legionella infection caused shifts in Naegleria PLFAs and sterols. Increased concentrations were seen in saturated 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids as well as in cholesterol. Decreased concentrations were seen in polyenoic fatty acids, ergosterol and ergosta-5,7-dienol. These results demonstrated that the PLFA and sterol contents of Naegleria changed during bacterial infection and returned to normal with drug therapy., When PLFA profiles of Legionella-contaminated water samples were analyzed, these profiles demonstrated distinct clustering between Legionella and the infected Naegleria. This study utilized lipid techniques to characterize free-living amoebae and a bacterial-amoebae association. The results not only defined taxonomic differences among amoebae but also provided a means to detect bacterial infections of amoebae., Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 52-10, Section: B, page: 5094., Major Professor: David L. Balkwill., Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1991.
Lipid-Protein Interactions Defined by Multi-Frequency EPR
Lipid-Protein Interactions Defined by Multi-Frequency EPR
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool to elucidate the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins and protein-lipid interactions. High magnetic fields increase EPR sensitivity and broaden its practice through increased time scale and g-tensor resolution. However, the application of high-field EPR is hindered by the lack of suitable techniques and methodologies. The focus of this work is to develop high-field and multi-frequency EPR methods for characterizing membrane proteins, with specific aims to investigate lipid-protein interactions of an antibacterial peptide (AA1) and HIV-1 envelope protein gp41. These methods include: i). A thin-layer cylindrical sample holder designed for studying low-yield biological samples at 94 GHz (W-band). The holder is non-resonant and operating in induction-mode for continuous wave EPR analyses. A concentration sensitivity of 2 µM was achieved for a spin-label standard and 20-30 µM for the biological aqueous samples, representing a ~10-fold enhancement compared to a cylindrical TE₀₁₁ resonator on a commercial Bruker W-band spectrometer (Chapter 3). ii). Magnetic alignment of cholesterol-containing bicelles at high fields. Membranes with high cholesterol content are typical in mammalian cells and are important for biophysical studies mimicking native conditions, such as using aligned bicelles to study protein orientation in membranes. In this study, field dependence of magnetic alignment of cholesterol-containing bicelles was investigated and enhanced bicelle alignment at high fields were demonstrated (Chapter 5). Other EPR techniques developed here include: 1) Membrane permeability analysis to assess membrane disruption by proteins; 2) Lipid lateral ordering induced by protein binding defined using EPR at 94 GHz; 3) A new application of EPR power saturation methods to determine membrane thinning. These EPR techniques were applied to define the molecular basis of the antimicrobial activity of AA1. The results show that the peptide selectively permeates and structurally modifies negatively charged bacterial-mimic membranes. In contrast, cholesterol-containing neutral membranes mimicking mammalian cells were minimally affected by the molecule. Based on combined EPR analyses, we proposed a “carpet-like” mechanism for the antimicrobial activities of AA1. The results provide implications for the development of effective AMPs with robust antibacterial activities against antibiotic-resistant microbes (Chapter 4). Additionally, magnetic alignment of bicelles was used to study the membrane bound region (MPERTM) of HIV-1 envelope protein gp41. Using a rigid spin-label–TOAC, the structural information of the MPERTM in membranes was determined by studying backbone dynamics, immersion depths and helical tilt in bicelles. The results indicate the existence of three separated helical segments of the MPERTM with different motional time-scales. The effect of lipid composition and cholesterol content on the conformation of the MPERTM in the membrane were also investigated (Chapter 6). In summary, we have demonstrated and further developed the applications of multi-frequency and high-field EPR in studying membrane proteins and lipid-protein interactions., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester 2016., Date of Defense: April 8, 2016., Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides, Bicelles, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, HiPER, HIV-1, Magnetic alignment, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Likai Song, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Stephen Hill, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Timothy A. Cross, University Representative; Per Arne Rikvold, Committee Member; David Van Winkle, Committee Member; Jorge Piekarewicz, Committee Member.
Lipolytic, Hormonal, and Muscle Quality Differences of Female Endurance Athletes with Higher vs Lower Body Fat
Lipolytic, Hormonal, and Muscle Quality Differences of Female Endurance Athletes with Higher vs Lower Body Fat
Introduction: The popularity of endurance events has grown recently with an increased number of participants who have an elevated body fat percentage. The influence of chronic endurance training on adipose tissue physiology in these recreational athletes is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of chronic endurance training on lipolytic rate and measurements of muscle quality (MQ) between two groups of female endurance athletes with two different levels of body fatness. Methods: Female endurance athletes (N=14) with >8 yrs of training experience were divided based on body fat % into lower body fat (LBF; N=5, age=32.1±8.2yrs, BF%=19.4±4.7%, BMI=21.8±1.7kg/m2) or higher body fat (HBF; N=9, age=36.1±8.3 yrs, BF%=31.1±3.1%, BMI=23.9±3.2 kg/m2) groups based upon a BF cut-off of the 30th percentile. Two visits were completed: 1) anthropometrics, BF%, fitness, strength, and MQ testing. US histogram analysis and isokinetic force production of the rectus femoris were used to quantify MQ (IMF% and N-m/cm2), and 2) SCAAT lipolysis was measured 1 hr before, during cycling at ~70% VO2peak for 45 min, and after exercise for 2h. Results: SCAAT lipolysis was not significantly different pre-exercise or not post-exercise (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference during exercise F(1,12) =15.01, p=.002, ƞ2=.556 (LBF=3090.6±1394.1µM, HBF=1003.2±654.3µM) between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in insulin or growth hormone (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups in muscle quality with IMF% (p > 0.05). Conclusion Chronic endurance exercise training of recreational female athletes appears to alleviate the expected decrements in muscle quality due to excess adiposity among individuals in the EBF group; however, there remains a lower resting and exercise-induced lipolysis in the HBF than LBF group. Further investigations should consider possible mechanisms or lifestyle factors contributing to these observed differences, A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., June 7, 2021., exercise, overweight, Includes bibliographical references., Michael J. Ormsbee, Professor Directing Dissertation; Diana Williams, University Representative; Robert C. Hickner Doctoral, Committee Member; Jeong-Su Kim Doctoral, Committee Member.
Liquid Helium Turbulent Pipe Flow and Magnetic Levitation Research
Liquid Helium Turbulent Pipe Flow and Magnetic Levitation Research
Liquid helium-4 undergoes a phase transition below about 2.17 K where it is called the superfluid (He II). He II is a non-classical fluid which is one of the very few macroscopic manifestation of the quantum mechanics. He II entails several bizarre properties including an extremely low kinematic viscosity. Due to this, He II has been proposed as an exceptional working fluid for turbulence research. The primary goal of the current thesis is to design a pioneering experiments to investigate the possibility and potential non-classical behavior of a law of the wall scaling in turbulent He II pipe flow. Here we report assembling a 5-m long He II flow facility so-called Liquid Helium Flow Visualization Facility which can generate He II turbulent flows with Reynolds numbers ($Re$) larger than a million. Inside an optically-accessible square flow pipe of $2 \times 2$ cm$^2$ cross-section, we generate fully-turbulent He II forced flows using an automated bellows-linear actuator pump. We also report the incorporation of a quantitative flow visualization technique called molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) using metastable triplet helium molecules as tracers. This visualization technique is based on a combination of a femtosecond laser-field ionization together with a 905-nm laser-induced fluorescence scheme to generate and illuminate the metastable helium molecules, respectively. We have designed and implemented a novel optical system to guide and satisfy the optical criteria for visualization of He II. Using this one-of-a-kind facility, we report the first quantitative flow visualization study of the law of the wall in He II turbulent pipe flow. We acquire the mean velocity profile near the wall region using a robust image processing algorithm, specifically developed for the type of images we acquire in our flow pipe and we compare it with the existing data in classical fluid research. Our data shows the existence of a logarithmic profile of "the near-wall mean velocity profile in turbulent pipe flow (NVP) in He II". By fitting the velocity profile using the law of the wall formula, we determined the two fitting coefficients including the von K\'arm\'an coefficient $\kappa$ and the additive constant $B$ in He II. We also conducted a comprehensive uncertainty analysis of data to evaluate the associated error. It turns out $\kappa=0.160\pm 0.015$ and $\kappa=0.154\pm 0.010$, and $B=-23.2\pm 0.4$ and $B=-24.0\pm 0.4$ for $Re_D=1.01\times 10^6$ and $Re_D=1.21\times 10^6$, respectively. On the other hand, the values of these two constants in classical turbulent pipe flow are determined about $\kappa=(0.37-0.42)$ and $B=(4-6)$. This significant difference suggests that the non-classical properties of He II affects the velocity profile in extremely high $Re$ He II pipe flow. This deviation from classical turbulence is of great significance for future numerical research as well as engineering designs of the He II pipe systems., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., September 15, 2022., Includes bibliographical references., Wei Guo, Professor Directing Dissertation; Jingjiao Guan, University Representative; Louis Cattafesta, III, Committee Member; Lance Coolay, Committee Member.
Liquid Sky
Liquid Sky
This thesis is based upon information from a variety of sources dealing with the soundtrack for the film Liquid Sky. One of these sources is the movie itself, which can be aurally and visually confusing without peripheral sources of reference. Because comprehending the film Liquid Sky is intrinsically linked to understanding the soundtrack, character and plot analysis is relevant to this study. This thesis acknowledges Liquid Sky as a cult film, but it also provides a context for defining cult films, as well as the characteristics that set them apart from films in other genres. Subsequently, these are used to show how Liquid Sky fits into the genre of cult film. As the main focus of this thesis, the music in Liquid Sky is identified, and its origin and context within the film are explained. The music is organized categorically: adapted, original, and borrowed. Additionally, the possible reasons for the use of these various kinds of music in the film are proposed. The music in Liquid Sky sounds unusual, however the process of creating the music for the film was truly unique for the time period. The main catalyst for the music in Liquid Sky was a synthesizer known as the Fairlight CMI. Although several synthesizers had preceded it, the Fairlight was the first digital model. The machine was specifically chosen by the film's director because of its ability to manipulate real world sounds. He eventually recruited Brenda Hutchinson and Clive Smith to compose the soundtrack on the Fairlight. A series of correspondences with Hutchinson and Smith provide insight on their own personal experiences while creating the film's soundtrack, but also the aesthetic wishes of the director for the music. It is my ultimate hope that, taken together, the information provided in the following pages supports the fundamental goal of this thesis, which is to show that Liquid Sky was a ground-breaking, if not overlooked, milestone in cult cinema, and film scoring. Most people did not know what the Fairlight was in 1982, much less how to operate it, and it is effectively used in Liquid Sky to create a sound palette to complement a film that can be most aptly described as alien., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the College of Music in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2007., Date of Defense: July 31, 2007., Keywords: Film Scoring, Cult Films, Electronic Music, Synthesizers, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Charles E. Brewer, Professor Directing Thesis; Jeffery T. Kite-Powell, Committee Member; Brian Gaber, Outside Committee Member.
Liquid-crystalline phases in concentrated DNA solutions
Liquid-crystalline phases in concentrated DNA solutions
Liquid-crystalline phase formation is concentrated DNA solutions with the ionic strengths of 0.01, 0.3 and 1 M Na$\sp{+}$ was investigated using phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The phase diagrams for isotropic to liquid-crystalline transitions were determined for all three ionic strengths from $\sp{31}$P NMR data and were found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions of P. J. Flory (Proc. Roy. Soc. A 234, 73; 1956) and Stroobants et al. (Macromolecules 19, 2232; 1986). The critical DNA concentration required for the anisotropic phase formation was found to be weakly dependent on ionic strength, indicating that the effective DNA radius is not strongly dependent on ionic strength., Two types of mesophases were formed in solutions of all ionic strengths investigated: a weakly birefringent, precholesteric phase and a cholesteric phase. In addition, concentrated solutions with DNA concentrations exceeding 250 mg/mL in 0.01 M and 0.3 M Na$\sp{+}$ buffer exhibited microscopic textures similar to the textures observed in smectic phases formed in solutions of small molecules, indicating a possible two-dimensional ordering of DNA helices., The sodium-DNA interactions in solutions with DNA concentrations in the range of 10-300 mg/mL and ionic strengths of 0.01 and 1 M Na$\sp{+}$ were investigated using sodium-23 NMR. The longitudinal relaxation rate of bound ions in the range of DNA concentrations of 10-200 mg/mL was found to be $\sim$200 Hz in 0.01 M Na$\sp{+}$ buffer and $\sim$380 Hz in 1 M Na$\sp{+}$ buffer. The relaxation rate was larger in samples which exhibited cholesteric ordering of DNA molecules., Quadrupole splitting was observed in samples in which the cholesteric phase first appeared: at 190 mg/mL in 0.01 M Na$\sp{+}$ and 250 mg/mL in 1 M Na$\sp{+}$ buffer. The magnitude of quadrupole splitting decreased with increasing DNA concentration in 0.01 M Na$\sp{+}$ buffer and remained relatively constant in 1 M Na$\sp{+}$ buffer. In addition, the quadrupole splitting changed sign when the temperature was increased from 20 to 60 $\sp\circ$C., Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 49-08, Section: B, page: 2979., Major Professor: Randolph Lynn Rill., Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1988.
Liraglutide-Induced Intake Suppression Competes with an Intake Promoting Cafeteria Diet, but Has No Effect on Relative Intake                 of Specific Foods or Macronutrients
Liraglutide-Induced Intake Suppression Competes with an Intake Promoting Cafeteria Diet, but Has No Effect on Relative Intake of Specific Foods or Macronutrients
Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1 mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline–injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption, suggesting that such changes seen after RYGB are unlikely due to activation of the GLP-1 receptor system alone., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester 2016., Date of Defense: November 22, 2016., Keywords: Food Choice, GLP-1, Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass, Taste Preference, Weight Loss, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Alan C. Spector, Professor Directing Thesis; Pamela Keel, Committee Member; Diana Williams, Committee Member.
Liriche Vocale da Salotto di Franco Alfano (Lyric Vocal Songs for the Salon of Franco Alfano)
Liriche Vocale da Salotto di Franco Alfano (Lyric Vocal Songs for the Salon of Franco Alfano)
This treatise will focus on the solo art song literature of the Italian composer Franco Alfano (1875-1954). Although, Alfano composed a total of fifty-three solo vocal pieces, these works are not generally known and are deserving of more widespread performance and study. Franco Alfano is recognized outside of Italy solely as the composer who completed the third act duet of Giacomo Puccini's final opera, Turandot, and little scholarly research in English is available on the subject of his art songs. The first part of this treatise will provide a brief biography of Alfano. The second part will discuss the poetry Alfano used for his art songs, focusing primarily on Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali poet, composer and educator who was the recipient of the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature. More than half of Alfano's art songs are set to Tagore's poetry. The third section will be a discussion of five art songs that are representative of the different compositional periods in Alfano life. The final section of the treatise is a catalogue of Alfano's art songs, providing information on publishers, the voice types for which they are written, the general mood of each art song, style of accompaniment, and notes on potential difficulties for performers., Submitted Note: A Treatise submitted to the College of Music in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Music., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2007., Date of Defense: December 12, 2006., Keywords: Tagore, Risurrezione, Art Songs, Vocal Songs, Posillipo, 20th Century Italian Art Songs, Italy, Facism, Mussolini, Puccini, Liriche, Alfano, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Douglas L. Fisher, Professor Directing Treatise; Andre Thomas, Outside Committee Member; Matthew Lata, Committee Member.

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