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Lignin-Based Polymer via Graft Copolymerization
Lignin-Based Polymer via Graft Copolymerization
Lignin can be an important source of synthetic commodity materials owing to its abundance in nature and low production cost. The current mainly usage of lignin, however, is very limited and focused only on cheap and poorly defined nonfunctional materials. This thesis presents a fundamental study to understand better methods of chemical modification for natural lignin, leading to an advanced polymeric modification of lignin with synthetic or other natural polymers. The presented specific achievement is graft copolymerization methods of lignin to produce well-defined synthetic polymers. Emphasis is placed on 1) natural lignin modification to possess alkyne or alkene groups, 2) synthesis of well-defined functional polymer grafts, 3) covalent bond linkages between lignin and polymers, and 4) property studies for material applications. At the beginning, a brief review of the previous efforts on lignin graft polymerization is summarized and organized into two methods, graft-onto and graft-from. Both methods use covalent bonds to integrate lignin and synthetic polymers. In the second chapter, a new lignin-based self-healing polymer, lignin-graft-poly(5-acetylaminopentyl acrylate) (lignin-graft-PAA) is demonstrated. The new lignin-based polymer achieves two significant advances in the study of lignin containing polymers: (1) lignin-graft-PAA is the first example of lignin being modified by a polymer with sophisticated structure, and (2) lignin-graft-PAA shows a special performance, autonomic self-healing properties, which have not yet been seen in lignin containing polymers. The third chapter of the thesis includes a completely new natural lignin modification method using a visible-light induced thiol-ene reaction. The new modification method is an important synthetic tool for the further materials applications, because of its features of low energy consumption, high efficiency, and no need of special reaction facilities. Furthermore, the modification can be progressed by truly natural and environmentally friendly light from the sun. Finally, the overall lignin-based polymer research in the thesis may be very useful for advanced levels of material applications such as photolithography, self-healing polymers, and 3D printing., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of Chemical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the Master of Science., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester 2017., Date of Defense: April 12, 2017., Keywords: graft polymerization, lignin, polymer, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Hoyong Chung, Professor Directing Thesis; Daniel T. Hallinan, Jr., Committee Member; Jingjiao Guan, Committee Member.
Lignin-Based Polymers via Graft Copolymerization
Lignin-Based Polymers via Graft Copolymerization
Lignin can be an important source of synthetic commodity materials owing to its abundance in nature and low production cost. The current main usage of lignin, however, is very limited to cheap and poorly defined nonfunctional materials, because of undefined chemical structure of lignin and difficulties in chemical modification. This dissertation presents fundamental studies of chemical modifications for natural lignin, leading to advanced functional lignin-based polymers that contains covalently linked natural lignin and synthetic polymers (or other natural biopolymers). The presented graft copolymerization methods of lignin emphasis on 1) natural lignin modification to possess alkyne or alkene groups, 2) synthesis of well-defined functional polymer grafts, 3) covalent bond linkages between lignin and polymers, and 4) mechanical and thermal property studies for material applications. Based on the fundamental method to produce lignin-based polymers, a new lignin-based self-healing polymer, lignin-graft-poly(5-acetylaminopentyl acrylate) (lignin-graft-PAA) was synthesized. The natural lignin and PAA was covalently integrated by a copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition using graft-onto method. Prior to the click reaction, lignin was modified to convert abundant hydroxyl groups to alkyne groups. The PAA was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation-chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization that produces low molecular weight distribution polymers containing chemically active terminal, azide end groups. The synthesized lignin-graft-PAA showed excellent automatic self-healing function which was achieved by hydrogen bonding from the acetylamino groups in PAA. In this lignin-graft-PAA, lignin functioned to strengthen the mechanical strength. The mechanical properties of Young's modulus, energy, maximum strength, and ultimate elongation were enhanced with more lignin content. After using click chemistry as a graft method, a visible light induced thiol-ene reaction was applied to lignin polymeric modification. This is the first time that lignin is modified by Ru(bpy)3Cl2 photoredox catalyzed reaction. Among photoredox catalysts and UV initiators for thiol-ene reaction, including Eosin Y, Ru(bpy)3Cl2, and 2,2-Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone, Ru(bpy)3Cl2 was found to be the most efficient on lignin modification. This modification was efficient between lignin and various thiol compounds, even with a polymer example, poly(ethylene glycol). This new modification method is an important synthetic tool for the further materials applications because of its features of low energy consumption, high efficiency, temporal and spatial control, and no need of special reaction facilities. Using this thiol-ene reaction, a new lignin-based shape memory polymer, crosslinked lignin-polycaprolactone (PCL) was synthesized. Lignin was modified from abundant hydroxyl groups to alkene groups to prepare for the thiol-ene reaction. PCL was synthesized by ring opening polymerization with a 4-arm architecture, which was designed for a dense crosslinking. The hydroxyl end groups from PCL was easily modified to thiol group through an esterification reaction. The alkene groups functioned lignin and thiol groups ended PCL were densely crosslinked by the thiol-ene reaction. The crosslinked lignin-PCL possessed an advanced shape memory function by the crosslinking structure with lignin as netpoints and PCL as switching segments. During the shape memory process, lignin netpoints hold the permanent structure and PCL switching segments allowed shape change. In this system, the role of lignin was a crosslinker additive. Moreover, the content of lignin crosslinker provided adjustment to melting temperature of the crosslinked lignin-PCL. More lignin content lowered the melting temperature by introducing defect to the PCL crystalline structure. Overall, lignin was integrated with polymers by precisely synthesis in this dissertation. The role of lignin was used as an important base polymer that occupies large portion, as well as a small amount additive. Both of the two roles can significantly change polymer properties to strengthen mechanical property and tune thermal property. The overall lignin-based polymer research in the dissertation may be very useful for advanced levels of material applications such as self-healing and shape memory polymers., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester 2018., Date of Defense: November 8, 2018., Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Hoyong Chung, Professor Directing Dissertation; Joseph B. Schlenoff, University Representative; Daniel T. Hallinan, Jr., Committee Member; Jingjiao Guan, Committee Member.
Like Love
Like Love
This creative thesis is a collection of stories that deal with issues surrounding the controlling question: "Who is the modern woman?" There is no singular, all-encompassing answer; however, these stories attempt to uncover possible answers. They also explore questions of gender, culture, and identity, examining them through a disruption of existing stereotypes. Questions such as: Why do we, in fact, struggle under this burden of stereotypes? How significant are aspects of heritage / culture? To what degree does upbringing influence our lives today? What role does sexual orientation play into all of the above? It is not so much that these questions are answered here, but I want my writing to raise them – in order to create a new awareness., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of English in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2005., Date of Defense: June 8, 2005., Keywords: Short Fiction, New Jersey, Sexuality, Judaism, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Sheila Ortiz-Taylor, Professor Directing Thesis; Julianna Baggott, Committee Member; Elizabeth Stuckey-French, Committee Member.
Like This
Like This
The poems in Like This may be grouped into the following categories: ' Poems in the voice of the author that explore the tension between the alluring stability of contemporary American suburbia and the high anxiety of a born second-guesser as the speaker wrestles with defining success and happiness as a father and husband employing a frank and often self-deprecating voice in order to satirize the frequent contradictory assumptions present in everyday speech. ' Poems that employ the free-verse dramatic monologue to explore the emotional upheavals that drive people to strive for seemingly trivial notoriety. Written as persona poems of world record holders, these works investigate the motives for achievements such as "Longest Duration to Stand Motionless." ' Poems in author created forms like the "spandrel" and mixed genre or bastardized forms like the "short-short memoir," "failed abecedarian," and the "sestory" (the name is a portmanteau made from the phrase "six word story" and the word "sestina"). By braiding these three categories of poems through the book, the author juxtaposes his striving for excellence as a poet, husband, and father with others who strive for notoriety in ways that are marginalized or just down right weird., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of English in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2010., Date of Defense: April 1, 2010., Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Erin Belieu, Professor Directing Dissertation; Darrin McMahon, University Representative; David Kirby, Committee Member; Julianna Baggott, Committee Member; Elaine Treharne, Committee Member.
Like a Rolling Stone
Like a Rolling Stone
As a means for understanding a wide range of multimodal phenomena, multimodal analysis poses methodological challenges for the novice researcher intent on investigating multimodal communication, especially communication that involves multimodal musical performance (MMP), an understudied communicative act. As a response to these challenges, this project examines three approaches to multimodal analysis identified by Carey Jewitt in The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis as central to studying multimodality writ large: social-semiotic multimodal analysis (SSMA), multimodal discourse analysis (MDA), and multimodal interactional analysis (MIA). However, while these approaches each provide a theory and key concepts for analysis, they lack a practicable methodology—necessary for the novice research—and, thus, provide no concrete way to pursue multimodal analysis or to assess the strengths and deficits of a particular approach when applied to the analysis of MMPs. In this project, I conduct a critical analysis that includes a theoretical and pragmatic examination of these approaches to multimodal analysis and assess them for strengths and deficits in terms of a particular MMP because such a performance is an important and under-explored variety of multimodal text. Thus, this project asks three questions of each approach and its methods: 1) What are the strengths of each approach to multimodal analysis of musical performance as multimodal communication? 2) What are the deficits of each approach to multimodal analysis of musical performance as multimodal communication? 3) And, finally, given the strengths and deficits of competing approaches to multimodal analysis of musical performance as multimodal communication, what do we need moving forward in order to fully, robustly, and capaciously analyze and understand musical performance as multimodal communication? I respond to these questions by devising a synthesized, practicable methodology for each approach, one derived from the work in key chapters in The Routledge Handbook identified by Jewitt as employing a specific approach. I apply each of these methodologies to a single musical performance: video footage from Bob Dylan’s July 25, 1965 performance at the Newport Folk Festival—which is often seen as a pivotal moment in popular music history—collected on the 2011 blu-ray release of Murray Lerner’s concert film The Other Side of the Mirror: Bob Dylan Live At Newport Folk Festival 1963-1965. I assess the results of my application of each methodology and its methods to determine the strengths and deficits of each approach for analyzing MMPs. Finally, I offer two options to bolster strengths and address deficits of these three approaches to the multimodal analysis of MMPs, one crafted from combining approaches, and one crafted from a new perspective—that of sonic imaginations (Sterne)—thus informing methodology with attention to the sonic aspects of MMPs. This dissertation offers three key results important for the novice researcher. First, it provides a practicable methodology for each approach, a necessary step in the process of assessing an approach's strengths and deficits. Second, it offers the novice researcher insight into each methodology’s potential. For instance, analyses indicated that SSMA possesses, among its five strengths, a focus on the sign-maker, while at the same time, it possesses, among its three deficits, no mechanism through which to consider the multiple sign-makers involved in an MMP. Similarly, MDA possesses, among its six strengths, a focus on the multimodal phenomenon, while at the same time, it possesses, among its four deficits, a lack of a systematic means for delineating levels of discourse. And, MDA possesses, among its five strengths, a focus on interaction between social actors involved in an MMP, while at the same time, it possesses, among its five deficits, a requirement for a considerable amount of guesswork on the part of the researcher. Third, while demonstrating that no approach to multimodal analysis offers a “best” methodology for the analysis of MMPs, this dissertation offers two directions for methodological inspiration. It concludes that, through a deliberate courting of emotion by tapping into elements of music criticism and through a deliberate courting of messiness by embracing the union of emotion and analysis, methodologies for analysis can be crafted that align with the demands of MMPs., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of English in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester 2017., Date of Defense: October 25, 2017., Keywords: Composition, Methodologies, Multimodal Analysis, Music, Musical Performance, Sound Studies, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Kristie Fleckenstein, Professor Directing Dissertation; Davis Houck, University Representative; Kathleen Blake Yancey, Committee Member; Michael Neal, Committee Member.
Like a Tree on Its Side
Like a Tree on Its Side
This thesis is a collection of lyric poetry and personal essays. The two genres are spliced together in a design intended to use their visual differences and contextual similarities to more fully understand the people, places, and events examined here. The material is based on the author's personal experiences, but is reflected upon and shared in this form in hopes of highlighting the universality of human emotions. Thematically, it delves into the complexities of personal relationships—family dynamics, romantic interests, and one's knowledge of herself—and explores how they change over time., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of English in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts., Degree Awarded: Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2005., Date of Defense: Date of Defense: June 24, 2005., Keywords: Personal essay, poetry, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory committee: Ned Stuckey-French, Committee Member; Joann Gardner, Committee Member.
Like a Unicorn
Like a Unicorn
There is an emerging body of research on the leadership learning of college students, but studies that examine the influence of racial or ethnic identity are minimal. Studies on the leadership learning of Black students and, more specifically, Black men is even scarcer. This dissertation study used a narrative inquiry methodology to explore how the experiences of undergraduate Black men influenced their leader identity. The study was grounded in a conceptual framework called experiential culturally relevant leadership learning that incorporates aspects of the culturally relevant leadership learning model (Bertrand Jones, Guthrie, & Osteen, 2016) and the experiential learning model (D. A. Kolb, 1984). An anti-deficit approach (Harper, 2012) was used to challenge the dominate narrative about Black men in college. The sample contained 15 undergraduate Black men from a predominantly White institution in the Southeastern United States. The findings suggest there are various formal and informal experiences that reinforce undergraduate Black men's leader identity as well as experiences that enhance it. The study also brings to light numerous challenges to the experiences of Black men who are student leaders., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester 2019., Date of Defense: May 1, 2019., Keywords: Black Males, Black Men, Leader Identity Development, Leadership, Leadership Development, Leadership Leadership, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Kathy Guthrie, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Cameron Beatty, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Winston Roberts, University Representative; Tamara Bertrand Jones, Committee Member; Robert Schwartz, Committee Member.
Likelihood ratio based confidence bands in survival analysis
Likelihood ratio based confidence bands in survival analysis
Thomas and Grunkemeier (1975) introduced a nonparametric likelihood ratio approach to confidence interval estimation of survival probabilities based on right censored data. We construct simultaneous confidence bands for survival, cumulative hazard rate and quantile functions using this approach. The boundaries of the bands for survival functions are contained within (0,1). A procedure essentially equivalent to a bias correction is developed. The resulting increase in coverage accuracy is illustrated by an example and a simulation study. We look at various versions of likelihood ratio based (LR) confidence bands for the survival function and compare them with the Hall-Wellner band and Nair's equal precision band. We show that LR bands for the cumulative hazard rate function and the quantile function can be obtained by employing a functional and the inverse transformation of the survival function respectively to an LR band for the survival function. At the mean time, the test-based and reflected methods are shown to be valid for constructing bands for the quantile function. The various confidence bands for the quantile function are illustrated through an example., Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 56-08, Section: B, page: 4414., Major Professors: Myles Holander; Ian W. McKeague., Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1995.
Liminal Laughter
Liminal Laughter
This dissertation argues for a feminist practice of liminal laughter, a bodily laughter that cements a critical engagement. Liminal laughter is formed in the margins, across various disciplines and genres; it is a subversive and parodic laughter that radically challenges the hegemonic narratives of patriarchy and heterosexuality. To contend that feminism benefits from this practice of liminal laughter, I expand on poststructural and phenomenological feminisms and their conceptualizations of the body. Subsequently, using the nineteenth century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche and his concepts of the transvaluation of all values, overcoming, and affirmation, I create a conceptual frame for thinking liminal laughter. To provide examples for this theory, I look to the Mickee Faust Club, an eclectic theater troupe in Tallahassee, Florida and the works of the theorist and novelist Hélène Cixous. Liminal laughter is a practice that revalues the body's capacities of sensing feeling to disrupt and destabilize the mind / body, masculine / feminine, natural / unnatural, and subject / other binaries. By doing so, liminal laughter not only displaces the dominant terms, but it is also creates alternative narratives., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Program of Interdisciplinary Humanities in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2011., Date of Defense: March 18, 2010., Keywords: Feminism, Gender Studies, Nietzsche, Liminal, Cixous, GLBT Studies, Laughter, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Robin T. Goodman, Professor Directing Dissertation; Enrique Alvarez, Committee Member; Donna M. Nudd, Committee Member.
Liminality, Embodiment and the Six Healing Sounds of Qigong
Liminality, Embodiment and the Six Healing Sounds of Qigong
This dissertation stems from an ethnographic experience, i.e., a course on the Six Healing Sounds of Qigong taught by Dr Yu Zhang, which I and other students attended in 1991 in Los Angeles, California. The course led to the following questions: What is qigong? What are the Six Healing sounds? Are the claims of this healing tradition to ancient origins accurate? These questions led to the following conclusions: Qigong is indeed a practice of ancient origins, albeit one that comes from different streams of Daoist and medical practices. Its name is a recent design by the Chinese government in the early 1950's, with the ulterior goal of creating an effective, low cost health care system rooted in Chinese culture. Apart from the answers provided above, I argue that qigong is a body technology that uses slow, gentle exercises, visualizations and standing and sitting meditations to elicit a state of reverie, a liminal or altered state of consciousness that is conducive to bodily, mental and spiritual experiences and transformation., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Program in Interdisciplinary Humanities in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2015., Date of Defense: April 29, 2015., Keywords: Chi Kung, Daoism, Daoyin, Liminality, Qigong, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Benjamin D. Koen, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Kathleen Erndl, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; David Johnson, University Representative; Svetla Slaveva-Griffin, Committee Member; Martin Kavka, Committee Member.
Limit theorems for Markov random fields
Limit theorems for Markov random fields
Markov Random Fields (MRF's) have been extensively applied in Statistical Mechanics as well as in Bayesian Image Analysis. MRF's are a special class of dependent random variables located at the vertices of a graph whose joint distribution includes a parameter called the temperature. When the number of vertices of the graph tends to infinity, the normalized distribution of statistics based on these random variables converge in distribution. It can happen that for certain values of the temperature, that the rate of growth of these normalizing constants change drastically. This feature is generally used to explain the phenomenon of phase transition as understood by physicists. In this dissertation we will show that this drastic change in normalizing constants occurs even in the relatively smooth case when all the random variables are Gaussian. Hence any image analytic MRF ought to be checked for such discontinuous behavior before any analysis is performed., Mixed limit theorems in Bayesian Image Analysis seek to replace intensive simulations of MRF's with limit theorems that approximate the distribution of the MRF's as the number of sites increases. The problem of deriving mixed limit theorems for MRF's on a one dimensional lattice graph with an acceptor function that has a second moment has been studied by Chow. A mixed limit theorem for the integer lattice graph is derived when the acceptor function does not have a second moment as for instance when the acceptor function is a symmetric stable density of index 0 $<$ $\alpha$ $<$ 2., Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 52-08, Section: B, page: 4297., Major Professor: Jayaram Sethuraman., Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1991.
Limitations and Possibilities of a Production
Limitations and Possibilities of a Production
The Rocky Horror Show is the predecessor of the more widely known The Rocky Horror Picture Show, the former being a musical that debuted in 1973 and the latter being a film that debuted in 1975. Audience participation has become synonymous with the title, and when one attends either, he must expect to hear the audience shouting at the actors, as well as be prepared to dodge squirt guns and toilet paper. Unique and eccentric, Rocky Horror has been drawing small but steady audiences for over thirty years because of the freedom it gives to people who "give themselves over to absolute pleasure" and embrace Frank N. Furter's motto of "don't dream it – be it." This thesis focuses on the production of the musical and how to manage potential audience concerns over the content in the play. I argue that the audience participation activities as well as certain staging techniques work as distracters from the events taking place in the actual play, alleviating potential anxiety caused by the issues of gender and sexuality in the text. The first chapter examines the challenges that a production of The Rocky Horror Show might face, focusing mainly on the issues of gender and sexuality found in the text. The second chapter looks at how transgressive the show can be. Specifically, it examines how the evolution of the cult audience created the audience participation factors that are now synonymous with the film. I also suggest how these extra-textual elements add to contemporary stage productions of the show and analyze how various audiences reacted to the stage show. The third chapter is a case study of Florida State University's 2008 production of The Rocky Horror Show with the specific goal of assessing how the challenges outlined in the first chapter affected FSU audiences. The chapter begins by addressing the production team's strategies and compromises for success. I then examine interviews that I conducted with attendees of various performances of the production, both first-timers and veterans of Rocky Horror, as well as my own audience observations. Overall, it is my hope that this thesis will serve as a resource to aid future production teams desiring to create a successful production of The Rocky Horror Show., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the School of Theatre in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2011., Date of Defense: March 16, 2011., Keywords: Audience Reception, Audience Participation, Cult Audience, Sexuality, Gender, The Rocky Horror Picture Show, The Rocky Horror Show, Theatre, Theatre Production, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Mary Karen Dahl, Professor Directing Thesis; Carrier Sandahl, Professor Directing Thesis; Elizabeth Osborne, Committee Member; Tom Ossowski, Committee Member.
Limited Abundance
Limited Abundance
Low-income and first-generation college students are a well-researched student population often highlighted by their complex postsecondary participation patterns. While there is much literature that examines the college choices of these students, it is often limited to simply going or not going and not framed by any particular setting. This exploratory study went beyond this traditional definition of college choice and explored reasons for institution types selected by low-income, first-generation students who continued onto postsecondary studies within the specific geographic context of an urban setting with vast postsecondary options. To do this, a qualitative descriptive case study analysis was done using students from the urban, high-density postsecondary market of the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area to learn if and how residing in urban areas with an abundance of postsecondary options influenced the postsecondary decision making of low-income, first-generation students. Students were identified through a partnership with a local TRIO program where qualified students were interviewed after their first semester in college to learn, through their own voices, reasons for and influences on their choices. The findings of the study confirmed that low-income, first-generation students face unique challenges that reverberate throughout their educational experiences. The study showed that it is these layered and complex influences – family finances, cost of attendance, institution type, distance, lack of awareness, and family input – that impacted participant choice most and trumped their presence in an urban, high density postsecondary market. In essence, they were limited in an atmosphere of abundance by their unique circumstances., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education., July 1, 2021., College choice, First-generation, Low-income, Postsecondary market, Urban, Includes bibliographical references., Toby J. Park-Gaghan, Professor Directing Dissertation; John Myers, University Representative; Stacey Rutledge, Committee Member; Patrice Iatarola, Committee Member.
Limited-Resource Institutions as Casualties of the NCAA's Academic Reform
Limited-Resource Institutions as Casualties of the NCAA's Academic Reform
Since the implementation of the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) Academic Progress Rate (APR), Historically Black Colleges & Universities’ (HBCU) male student athletes have disproportionately received more APR academic penalties than other groups of athletes (NCAA, 2016b). Each Division I team receives an APR score based on athletes’ eligibility and retention as a means to monitor graduation (Paskus, 2015). Calculating each team’s score, the NCAA uses a cut score to guide the distribution of penalties (Blackman, 2008; New, 2015). Penalties are sanctioned to teams that fail to meet the designated cut score. However, Black colleges have historically lagged behind predominantly White institutions in regards to equal resources (Ashe, 1988b). Consequently, the distribution of APR penalties is disproportionately greater at institutions with limited resources, e.g. HBCUs (NCAA, 2015b; NCAA, 2017e). Imposing uniform academic standards across member institutions disadvantages HBCUs and their athletes and conflicts with the intent of the APR metric — which was to increase graduation rates for all athletes (Harrison, 2012; Paskus, 2012). The exploratory analysis in this study found that the NCAA was not fully enforcing the APR penalty system. During the first five years of APR implementation, fewer HBCU male teams were below the 900 threshold compared to non-HBCU male teams. However, HBCU male teams disproportionately received more severe APR penalties compared to non-HBCU male teams with comparable multi-year APR scores. This study sought to investigate the action-policy-conflict to determine: whether the NCAA’s enforcement of APR penalties had an empirical relationship with graduation rates for penalized Division I male teams; whether a differential relationship exists between graduation rates and penalties assigned to HBCU male teams; and what would the impact of APR penalties on graduation rates be if the NCAA had fully enforced the APR penalty system for all teams below the benchmark (intent-to-treat)? To answer the research questions, the NCAA’s publicly accessible APR and Graduation Success Rate (GSR) databases, and the National Center for Education Statistic’s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) were used as data sources. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict the relationship between APR penalties and six-year team graduation rates for the academic years of 2005-2006 and 2009-2010. Results of the study found that in the first year (2005-2006) and towards the latter year (2009-2010) of the original APR penalty system, historical penalties were not statistically significant predictors on six-year team graduation rates. Although HBCU male teams disproportionately received more historical penalties than non-HBCU male teams with similar multi-year APR scores, the penalties had no differential impact on the six-year team graduation rates for HBCU male teams. Had the NCAA fully enforced historical penalties to all teams below the 900 cut score, receiving the penalty would not have been a statistically significant predictor on Division I male team graduation rates for the two years of interest in the study. The results from the study are thought to be the first empirical study to examine the NCAA’s APR penalty system (Harrison, 2012; Paskus, 2012). This study provides empirically supported recommendations for the NCAA to consider if the APR penalty system is continued., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester 2018., Date of Defense: April 9, 2018., Keywords: Academic Performance Program, Academic Progress Rate, Academic Reform, Historically Black Colleges & Universities, Multiple Regression, National Collegiate Athletic Association, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Robert Schwartz, Professor Directing Dissertation; John Taylor, University Representative; Stacey Rutledge, Committee Member; Toby Park, Committee Member.
Line in the Sand
Line in the Sand
This thesis investigates the issues behind increasing tensions in joint commands and interservice rivalries during the Pacific War between the Army and the Marine Corps. The purpose of this thesis is to clearly define the interservice issues of World War II. The rivalry between the Army and the Marine Corps grew increasingly worse during World War II. Tensions between the two organizations led to numerous outright conflicts during the Pacific War, most notably that involving Holland Smith and Saipan. However, more than personalities or the basic rivalries that existed between all the services since their foundation, the interservice conflicts which erupted during the Pacific War were caused in large part by the introduction of debates concerning military unification by George Marshall in 1943. The emotions triggered by these debates in Washington spread to subordinate officers while they still fought thousands of miles away, causing serious problems to arise between the services. The results returned to affect the outcomes of the unification debates, both in 1947 and later., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of History in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2014., Date of Defense: April 1, 2014., Keywords: Defense Unification, Interservice Rivalry, Pacific War, United States Army, United States Marine Corps, World War II, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: G. Kurt Piehler, Professor Directing Thesis; Anika Culver, Committee Member; James Jones, Committee Member.
Linear Analysis of Multi-Phase Phil Experiments
Linear Analysis of Multi-Phase Phil Experiments
Application of power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) experiment methodology has been increasing steadily in the past few years. As usage of PHIL technique expands, PHIL methodology is being applied to several areas of power system technology. One of the main concerns in PHIL experiments is tradeoff between accuracy stability and sensitivity of experiments as well as the PHIL interface. In recent years, studies have been conducted on application of a teleoperation framework in the context of PHIL experiments particularly using the extended lawrence architecture (ELA). Several interface algorithms have been realized through the use of the ELA framework and stability and accuracy of these interface algorithms (IA) have been assessed. Although in depth analysis of the PHIL experiments in the context of ELA framework has been provided, it has been limited to either single phase systems with a single PHIL interface or dual/multiple PHIL interface. The work presented here in details on extension of the ELA framework to multiphase PHIL simulations. Existing PHIL interface algorithms have been expressed using ELA framework, as well as derivation of relevant transfer functions and metrics for assessment of performance. The application and analysis provided in this work can be applied to multi-phase systems whose interface algorithm is implemented either as 'abc' frame, 'DQ0' decomposition or 'pn0' sequence decomposition. The research conducted here focuses on application and analysis of 3-phase balanced systems employing 'DQ0' transformation based interface algorithm. Stability and accuracy in the context of ELA framework is compared against the ideal system as well as rotating frame 'abc' tppe inteface algorithm. It can be concluded from this work that ELA framework can be extended to multiphase systems. The linear analysis framework used to predict stability and accuracy of PHIL simulations is also applicable to multi-phase PHIL simulations., A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., October 24, 2023., Accuracy, DIM ITM, Linear Analysis, Multi-Phase, PHIL, Stability, Includes bibliographical references., Sastry Pamidi, Professor Directing Dissertation; Juan Ordonez, University Representative; James Langston, Committee Member; Olugbenga Anubi, Committee Member; Peter Cheetham, Committee Member.
Lingering Words
Lingering Words
The purpose of this thesis is to study ancient Greek inscriptions on Attic vases. First, the categories of inscriptions are clearly defined. Second, various theories pertaining to those categories of inscriptions are debated as to their validity. Third, the information that the inscriptions provide on the culture, potters and painters of ancient Athens is dicussed. This thesis will provide a foundation of current information that the student or scholar can reference and build upon when beginning their study on ancient Greek inscriptions., Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of Classics in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts., Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2007., Date of Defense: April 19, 2007., Keywords: Attic Vases, Inscription Theories, Toasts, Labels, Comments, Nonsense Inscriptions, Kalos Inscriptions, Signatures, Bubble Inscriptions, Attic Vase Inscriptions, Ancient Greek Inscriptions, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Laurel Fulkerson, Professor Directing Thesis; Christopher Pfaff, Committee Member; James Sickinger, Committee Member.
Linguistic Alignment
Linguistic Alignment
The current study uses two experiments to explore how a range of social and cognitive variables affect linguistic alignment. Experiment 1 examines the effects of a number of individual difference variables (inhibitory control, pattern learning, creativity, trait conformity, and the need to belong), while Experiment 2 focuses on one specific social variable—female fertility. In order to look at linguistic alignment (or a lack thereof), the study employs a picture description task in which dyads (each dyad is comprised of one participant and one confederate) take turns describing pictures to each other. Both experiments measured the degree to which participants aligned with confederates on sentence structure, and Experiment 2 also measured alignment of vocal pitch within the dyads. The results of Experiment 1 suggest that individual differences do not affect the amount of alignment of sentence structure. However, the results of Experiment 2 reveal that the fertility level of a female conversational partner affects the degree to which men align with women on sentence structure. Specifically, men were less likely to align with the sentence structure of a woman who was at high fertility than with the sentence structure of a woman who was at a lower level of fertility. Experiment 2 also demonstrates that men and women in conversation do align on vocal pitch. Possible explanations and implications are discussed., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011., Date of Defense: June 15, 2011., Keywords: Dyadic Conversation, Female Fertility, Vocal Pitch, Structural Priming, Linguistic Alignment, Individual Differences, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Michael Kaschak, Professor Directing Thesis; Gretchen Sunderman, University Representative; Colleen Kelley, Committee Member; Jon Maner, Committee Member; E. Ashby Plant, Committee Member.
Linguistic Feature Development in Elementary Writing
Linguistic Feature Development in Elementary Writing
The purpose of this study was to examine multiple dimensions of written language produced by eighty-nine children in grades 2, 3, and 4 in narrative and expository writing samples. Two written composition samples were collected from students exhibiting typical development in second, third, and fourth grades using one narrative and one expository writing prompt via a scripted, generated elicitation method. Additionally, participants completed group-administered, norm-referenced measures of receptive vocabulary, word level reading, and reading comprehension. The writing samples were transcribed into Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller & Chapman, 2005), coded, and analyzed for developmental progression of linguistic elements represented by the five factors of productivity, grammatical complexity, grammatical accuracy, lexical diversity, and macrostructure. Reading comprehension scores were used as covariates in the multivariate analyses of variance. Results indicated that levels of productivity and macrostructure increased steadily with age. Across the narrative and expository samples examined, levels of productivity were highly correlated and nearly equivalent within each grade, whereas a trend was noted for levels of macrostructure in the expository genre to increase more sharply from second to third grade than in the narrative genre. There was a grade effect for grammatical complexity in the expository genre, whereas there were no significant differences between grade levels for narrative grammatical complexity. Interestingly, the second graders scored higher than the third and fourth graders on measures of grammatical complexity (especially MLTu) in their expository samples. Comparison of grammatical complexity levels across genres revealed a small, negative correlation across all three grade levels. No grade level differences were detected for grammatical accuracy and lexical diversity in either genre; although, there was a trend for fourth graders to produce a higher number of grammatical errors than second and third graders. Students in each grade performed similarly regardless of genre type on measures of grammatical accuracy and lexical diversity. Relations among measures of microstructure and macrostructure were revealed between productivity and macrostructure in both genres and between macrostructure and grammatical accuracy in the expository genre. Inter-correlations of measures within grade level are discussed. There were no significant effects of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or gender on writing outcomes. Interestingly, trade-offs in performance on certain linguistic features appeared to occur for second and fourth graders. Results of this study suggest that variables of written microstructure and macrostructure were sensitive to grade and genre level differences, that productivity (a measure of microstructure), and macrostructure were related in both genres for all three grade levels, and that one cannot assume the older students will outperform younger students on all measures. This latter finding was thought to be due to a trade-off between linguistic and cognitive demands for second and fourth graders. Consequently, future research needs to establish these trade-off trends occur in larger samples and examine the effects of different academic contexts (e.g., variable elicitation techniques, discourse structures, content specific assignments) on this phenomenon. The findings of this investigation are discussed in light of grade level standards for writing and the identification of students with writing difficulties. Multiple suggestions are presented for educational implications of the results, and specific directions provided for future research., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the School of Communication Science and Disorders in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2010., Date of Defense: November 13, 2009., Keywords: Writing, Writing Development, Microstructure, Macrostructure, Linguistic Feature Analysis, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Kenn Apel, Professor Directing Dissertation; Barbara Foorman, University Representative; Lisa Scott, Committee Member; Shurita Thomas-Tate, Committee Member.
Linguistic Profiles of Spelling Errors in Fourth, Fifth, and Seventh Grade Students
Linguistic Profiles of Spelling Errors in Fourth, Fifth, and Seventh Grade Students
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of linguistic knowledge in spelling by analyzing spelling errors made by 220 students in the fourth, fifth, and seventh grades. A 25-word researcher-designed spelling test with considerations of word frequency, word familiarity, and word type (based on morphological complexity) was administered. An error coding system was established based on the Triple Word Form theory. Each misspelling was coded based on its linguistic features and scored cumulatively in 3 categories: Phonological Representation, Orthographic Legality, and Morphological Legality. The error coding system revealed the linguistic profiles of misspellings and allowed the comparisons among subgroups matched on grades, reading, and spelling ability levels. The results of profile analyses supported the Overlapping Waves Model, which advocates that spellers use their phonological, orthographic, and morphological knowledge in spelling simultaneously regardless of age, reading, or spelling levels. On the other hand, the study did not find evidence supporting the stage-specific theory, which defines each stage by observations of the consistent use of one strategy in spelling. The linguistic profiles revealed the competition between Phonological Representation and Orthographic Legality, which provided little evidence supporting the specific phonological deficit hypothesis. On the contrary, the researcher found that the key to becoming an average speller is to be able to effectively apply sufficient phonological knowledge in spelling. For students with poor reading ability, they do not just suffer from limited phonological knowledge but also from the lack of other linguistic knowledge. For any two students with average reading ability, it is the one who can apply sufficient phonological knowledge that benefit in spelling and perform at the level that matches his or her reading ability. Educational implications are discussed., Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the School of Teacher Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2013., Date of Defense: June 20, 2013., Keywords: Error Coding, Match Design, Morphology, Orthography, Phonology, Spelling, Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references., Advisory Committee: Barbara Foorman, Professor Directing Thesis; Christopher Schatschneider, University Representative; Young-Suk Kim, Committee Member; Beth M. Phillips, Committee Member.

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