The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate ensemble musicians’ perceptions of the function of facial expression in conducting. The primary research question was: (1) What are undergraduate ensemble members’ perceptions of the function of facial expression in conducting when presented with video-only clips of conductors’ facial expressions? Additional research questions were: (2) Are there differences in the perceptions of facial expression function between choral ensemble members and instrumental ensemble members? (3) How do undergraduate ensemble members perceive the importance of conductor facial expression in rehearsal and performance?Experienced choral conductors (N = 4) made stimulus video recordings of 5 facial expression functions defined through previous research: Expressive, Positive Feedback, Negative Feedback, Modeling, and Neutrality (the lack of expression). The conductors created each of the five targeted facial expressions over 12 beats that began and ended with no expression. The conductors recorded each facial expression were three times. Audio stimuli were not a part of the creation or presentation of the final videos. Experienced choral conductors (N = 5) evaluated the intensity of the video on a 10-point scale. The final phase of the study utilized the 20 videos rated most intense for each condition and each conductor. Undergraduate ensemble musicians (N =120) from two ensemble disciplines- choral (n = 60) and instrumental (n = 60), viewed each video and manipulated sliders on a 10-point scale to indicate their perception of the presence of the five targeted facial expression functions in each video. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects for function, conductor, and presentation order. Participants perceived the Modeling and Expressive functions as having the highest mean intensity, while the Neutrality condition had the lowest mean intensity ratings. Statistical analysis also revealed significant interactions between conductor and function; presentation order and function; presentation order and conductor; and presentation order, function, and conductor. An analysis of participants’ scores in relation to the intended function of the stimulus video revealed that participants perceived the intended function correctly for 95.40% of Neutrality responses, 67.70% of Negative Feedback responses, 65.20% of Expressive responses, 58.30% of Positive Feedback responses, and 42.70% of Modeling responses. A general survey of participants’ perceptions of the importance of facial expression on a 10-point scale in three conditions indicated that participants perceived the Expressive function as most important (M = 7.97, SD = 1.29), followed by Feedback (M = 7.70, SD = 1.60) and Overall (M = 7.28, SD = 1.45). Participants (N = 85) offered their perceptions of facial expression in rehearsal and performance in two Free-Response opportunities. Data indicated stronger perceptions of Positive Feedback (55.95%) and Negative Feedback (54.76%) facial expressions in rehearsal. The strongest perceptions of performance facial expression were in the Expressive function (44.71%) with lesser emphasis on the Feedback function and other functions related to remembering ideas from rehearsal and being engaged and excited by the conductor’s facial expressions. The findings of the present study suggest that facial expression does have multiple functions and ensemble musicians can perceive those functions. The effects of presentation order on these perceptions suggests that conductor facial expressions are context dependent and individualized, while still being recognizable enough for participants to successfully perceive them as differing from neutrality and to perceive both a primary function and a blend of other functions. Data suggests that undergraduate ensemble musicians perceived the Expressive function and the Positive/Negative Feedback functions as being of the most importance in rehearsal, performance, and the overall art of conducting. Future research in this area could expand the present study with conductors and ensemble musicians of different musical disciplines, ages, musical experience, and the use of audio stimuli, as well as implications for pedagogical strategies to increase conductor facility with the use of facial expression in conducting.