Entangling Qubits by Heisenberg Spin Exchange and Anyon Braiding
Zeuch, Daniel (author)
Bonesteel, N. E. (professor directing dissertation)
Sussman, Mark (university representative)
Hill, S. (Stephen Olof) (committee member)
Piekarewicz, Jorge, 1956- (committee member)
Florida State University (degree granting institution)
College of Arts and Sciences (degree granting college)
Department of Physics (degree granting department)
As the discovery of quantum mechanics signified a revolution in the world of physics more than one century ago, the notion of a quantum computer in 1981 marked the beginning of a drastic change of our understanding of information and computability. In a quantum computer, information is stored using quantum bits, or qubits, which are described by a quantum-mechanical superposition of the quantum states 0 and 1. Computation then proceeds by acting with unitary operations on these qubits. These operations are referred to as quantum logic gates, in analogy to classical computation where bits are acted on by classical logic gates. In order to perform universal quantum computation it is, in principle, sufficient to carry out single-qubit gates and two-qubit gates, where the former act on individual qubits and the latter, acting on two qubits, are used to entangle qubits with each other. The present thesis is divided into two main parts. In the first, we are concerned with spin-based quantum computation. In a spin-based quantum computer, qubits are encoded into the Hilbert space spanned by spin-½ particles, such as electron spins trapped in semiconductor quantum dots. For a suitable qubit encoding, turning on-and-off, or "pulsing," the isotropic Heisenberg exchange Hamiltonian JSi · Sj allows for universal quantum computation and it is this scheme, known as exchange-only quantum computation, which we focus on. In the second part of this thesis, we consider a topological quantum computer in which qubits are encoded using so-called Fibonacci anyons, exotic quasiparticle excitations that obey non-Abelian statistics, and which may emerge in certain two-dimensional topological systems such as fractional quantum-Hall states. Quantum gates can then be carried out by moving these particles around one another, a process that can be viewed as braiding their 2+1 dimensional worldlines. The subject of the present thesis is the development and theoretical understanding of procedures used for entangling qubits. We begin by presenting analytical constructions of pulse sequences which can be used to carry out two-qubit gates that are locally equivalent to a controlled-PHASE gate. The corresponding phase can be arbitrarily chosen, and for one particular choice this gate is equivalent to controlled-NOT. While the constructions of these sequences are relatively lengthy and cumbersome, we further provide a straightforward and intuitive derivation of the shortest known two-qubit pulse sequence for carrying out a controlled-NOT gate. This derivation is carried out completely analytically through a novel "elevation" of a simple three-spin pulse sequence to a more complicated five-spin pulse sequence. In the case of topological quantum computation with Fibonacci anyons, we present a new method for constructing entangling two-qubit braids. Our construction is based on an iterative procedure, established by Reichardt, which can be used to systematically generate braids whose corresponding operations quickly converge towards an operation that has a diagonal matrix representation in a particular natural basis. After describing this iteration procedure we show how the resulting braids can be used in two explicit constructions for two-qubit braids. Compared to two-qubit braids that can be found using other methods, the braids generated here are among the most efficient and can be obtained straightforwardly without computational overhead.
entanglement, non-Abelian anyons, quantum computation, quantum dots
May 31, 2016.
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Includes bibliographical references.
Nicholas E. Bonesteel, Professor Directing Dissertation; Mark Sussman, University Representative; Vladimir Dobrosavljevic, Committee Member; Stephen Hill, Committee Member; Jorge Piekarewicz, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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