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ABSTRACT Worldwide variations in homicide have been subject to debate, specifically in why these variations may occur. This cross-national study makes use of data for 60 developed and developing nations from the World Values Survey data in attempt to account for worldwide homicide variations for the years 2009-2014. Doing so provides a unique test of Messner and Rosenfeld's Institutional Anomie Theory. First, this study examines whether belief in the "American Dream," or monetary success, in combination with weak commitment to legitimate means of achievement, significantly increases world-wide homicide rates. Empirical results show that strong belief in monetary success is related to rates of homicide, but this relationship is not conditioned by weak commitment to legitimate means to achieve it. Additionally, in examining belief in monetary success and weak commitment to legitimate means to achieve it, partial support is found for the idea that the criminal justice system can help to attenuate the positive relationship between belief in monetary success in conjunction with weak commitment to legitimate means to achieve it and homicide, with the outcome of decreased homicide rates. This finding can be attributed to the fact that the criminal justice system serves "keep order" functions such as imprisonment and high police presence. In a related vein, partial support is found for the notion that the military can help weaken the positive relationship between belief in monetary success in conjunction with weak commitment to legitimate achievement means and homicide. Like the criminal justice system, the military plays a pivotal role in keeping order of its citizens by instilling self-control and discipline, which may vary by nations worldwide.