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Comprehension Tools for Teachers

Title: Comprehension Tools for Teachers: Reading for Understanding from Prekindergarten through Fourth Grade.
Name(s): Connor, Carol McDonald, author
Phillips, Beth M, author
Kaschak, Michael, author
Apel, Kenn, author
Kim, Young-Suk, author
Al Otaiba, Stephanie, author
Crowe, Elizabeth C, author
Thomas-Tate, Shurita, author
Johnson, Lakeisha Cooper, author
Lonigan, Christopher J, author
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Text
Date Issued: 2014-09-01
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: This paper describes the theoretical framework, as well as the development and testing of the intervention, Comprehension Tools for Teachers (CTT), which is composed of eight component interventions targeting malleable language and reading comprehension skills that emerging research indicates contribute to proficient reading for understanding for prekindergarteners through fourth graders. Component interventions target processes considered largely automatic as well as more reflective processes, with interacting and reciprocal effects. Specifically, we present component interventions targeting cognitive, linguistic, and text-specific processes, including morphological awareness, syntax, mental-state verbs, comprehension monitoring, narrative and expository text structure, enacted comprehension, academic knowledge, and reading to learn from informational text. Our aim was to develop a tool set composed of intensive meaningful individualized small group interventions. We improved feasibility in regular classrooms through the use of design-based iterative research methods including careful lesson planning, targeted scripting, pre- and postintervention proximal assessments, and technology. In addition to the overall framework, we discuss seven of the component interventions and general results of design and efficacy studies.
Identifier: FSU_pmch_26500420 (IID), 10.1007/s10648-014-9267-1 (DOI), PMC4613791 (PMCID), 26500420 (RID), 26500420 (EID)
Keywords: Academic language, Children, Early childhood, Elementary school, Instruction, Intervention, Literacy, Middle childhood, Oral language, Preschool, Reading comprehension, Small group intervention, Students, Tier 2
Grant Number: P50 HD052120
Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at
Persistent Link to This Record:
Host Institution: FSU
Is Part Of: Educational psychology review.
Issue: iss. 3, vol. 26

Choose the citation style.
Connor, C. M. D., Phillips, B. M., Kaschak, M., Apel, K., Kim, Y. -S., Al Otaiba, S., … Lonigan, C. J. (2014). Comprehension Tools for Teachers: Reading for Understanding from Prekindergarten through Fourth Grade. Educational Psychology Review. Retrieved from