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There Is a World Outside of Experimental Designs

Title: There Is a World Outside of Experimental Designs: Using Twins to Investigate Causation.
Name(s): Hart, Sara A, author
Taylor, Jeanette, author
Schatschneider, Christopher, author
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Text
Date Issued: 2013-03-01
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: This study introduces a co-twin control method commonly used in the medical literature but not often within educational research. This method allows for a comparison of twins discordant for an "exposure," approximating alternative outcomes in the counterfactual model. Example analyses use data drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading to determine whether exposure to "teacher quality," measured by growth in oral reading fluency (ORF) scores of classmates, causally affects ORF performance of twins in the subsequent years. The analysis highlights PROC MIXED in SAS, including a novel expansion to allow for the nested data. Results from 2,788 twins suggested that being in classrooms with lower teacher quality in first grade leads to lower ORF scores in second and third grade with little indication of possible genetic or environmental confounding.
Identifier: FSU_pmch_23525781 (IID), 10.1177/1534508412451490 (DOI), PMC3604986 (PMCID), 23525781 (RID), 23525781 (EID)
Keywords: Causation, Classroom effects, Methodology, Oral reading fluency, Twins
Grant Number: P50 HD052120
Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at
Persistent Link to This Record:
Host Institution: FSU
Is Part Of: Assessment for effective intervention : official journal of the Council for Educational Diagnostic Services.
Issue: iss. 2, vol. 38

Choose the citation style.
Hart, S. A., Taylor, J., & Schatschneider, C. (2013). There Is a World Outside of Experimental Designs: Using Twins to Investigate Causation. Assessment For Effective Intervention : Official Journal Of The Council For Educational Diagnostic Services. Retrieved from