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This study examined the nature and quality of teacher-student interactions in a third grade science classroom and investigated how interactions and teacher-child relationships relate to the learning of science concepts. The relationships between the three dimensions of teacher-student relationships (Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency) and teacher-student interactions including the dimensions explaining the nature and the quality of teacher-student interactions were examined. The study also determined whether there was a relationship between students' conceptual understanding of science and all variables of teacher-student interactions and the teacher-student relationships. First, data from the videotape and audiotape recordings were transcribed, coded and analyzed to determine the appropriateness of the proposed interaction-types and their classification into the categories. The twelve teacher-student interaction categories used in this study were able to capture all verbal teacher-student interactions in the classroom. Second, each teacher-student interaction was placed into the respective dimension and group explaining the nature and quality of the interaction. Finally, Pearson Product Moment Correlations were computed to explore the possible relationships between the teacher-student interactions and relationships and students' conceptual understanding of science. Teacher-student interaction scores were obtained through natural observations of eight- to nine-year-old children. Students were rated by their teachers using the STRS in order to obtain teacher child relationship scores. Similarly, conceptual science understanding scores were obtained through pre- and post-tests delivered at the beginning and end of the science unit. The findings of the study suggested a strong relationship between teacher's perception of her relationships with the students and the teacher-student interactions in the classroom. It appears that classroom conversations mostly take place between the teacher and the students whom the teacher perceived to have better relationships. However, it was clear from the observations that positive teacher-student relationships did not necessarily warrant for high quality teacher-student interactions in the classroom. The quality of the teacher-student interactions during the science lessons appeared to be more moderate than high in quality. Students' improvement in conceptual understanding of science was rather related to the positive classroom environment and the friendly classroom atmosphere created by the teacher and did not significantly correlate with the student's individual interaction or relationship with the teacher.