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The following interventions improve important outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure (all SORs: A, based on meta-analyses): • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality, repeat myocardial infarction (MI), and hospitalization rates • Beta-blockers and aldosterone blockers reduce mortality and hospitalization rates • Diuretics reduce mortality and hospitalization rates and improve exercise capacity • Digitalis treatment decreases hospitalization rates and clinical deterioration • Aerobic exercise rehabilitation of at least 6 months in duration decreases hospitalization rates and improves quality of life. The following intervention improves important outcomes in African American patients with systolic heart failure (SOR: B, based on a single RCT): • Isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine combination therapy reduces mortality and hospitalization rates and improves quality of life.