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This literature review analyzed studies that used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict fruit and vegetable intake, a preventative health behavior. The TPB consists of four psychosocial constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and intention) which are proposed to predict behavior. A total of nine studies matched the research criteria in this review, with a total of 3,397 participants from the general adult population. After analysis, perceived behavioral control was identified as the most common predictor of intention, and intention was the strongest predictor of fruit and vegetable intake. This review discusses the measurement successes of the studies; the importance of measuring beliefs which are the foundation of TPB constructs; as well as the importance of properly testing the fit of the model when the TPB is supplemented with additional constructs, such as self-efficacy. This review discussed the characteristics, methods, and results of the studies in order to inform future research and interventions promoting fruit and vegetable intake.