The period in English musical history referred to as the English Musical Renaissance, stretching roughly from 1860-1940, is generally acknowledged as an era marked by a large resurgence of both musical and cultural activity. During this time, scholars, composers, performers, and philanthropists contributed to the growth of a new repertoire of English compositions that in turn strengthened England's burgeoning nationalistic identity. Despite this flourishing cultural climate, the era was rife with controversy, revealing a complex web of musical and sociopolitical factors, some deliberately constructed, that led to the privileging of certain English composers and repertoire at the expense of others. As such, the era remains a fertile one for musicological exploration and debate. Nevertheless, English composers made great strides during this era, producing an astonishing amount of significant repertoire in a variety of genres. Contributions to string chamber music literature, with a new emphasis on the viola, were a notable product of this period and helped define the transition from Germanic, late-romanticism to early English modernism. The principal purpose of this treatise is to re-examine the viola music of the relatively neglected composer York Bowen within both the context of the English Musical Renaissance and the development of the English viola repertoire. After a brief introduction, Chapter 1 gives an historical overview of the English Musical Renaissance, including a survey of the fundamental musicological texts and resources focusing on the complex construction of the era. Chapter 2 presents a biographical sketch of York Bowen as a performer and composer, highlighting his initial meeting and collaboration with the English violist Lionel Tertis and many of his noteworthy compositions. This leads to a more in-depth examination, in Chapter 3, of Bowen's most significant works for the viola: the Sonatas for viola and piano, the Viola Concerto, and the Fantasie Quartet for Four Violas, all composed between 1905 and 1907 and a product of the partnership between Bowen and Tertis. Chapter 4 discusses factors and obstacles that prevented Bowen from achieving a more lasting fame and re-examines his legacy and the importance of his role within the development of English viola literature. Chapter 5 concludes the body of this treatise by exploring the current revival of interest in Bowen's music and the growing prominence of his compositions in the core of viola repertoire as evidenced by a variety of new recordings, critical editions, scholarship, and pedagogy. After the final chapter of this treatise, two appendices are attached. The first lists a general catalogue of Bowen's viola music, including categories for those compositions featuring the viola in a solo role and those using viola in a larger chamber ensemble context. Also included are the dates of composition and any publishing information available. The second appendix is a current discography of Bowen's viola music. The treatise concludes with a detailed bibliography of resources used in the preparation of this project.