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The purpose of the current study was to report the current risk management practices of NCAA Division I-A football stadiums in relation to Ammon's (2001) D.I.M. Process. Along with this exploratory and descriptive investigation of Division I-A stadiums, relationships among risk management practices and selected stadium demographic data were examined. Relationships were determined using chi-square analysis. The questionnaire consisted of nine sections with a total of 95 items. The nine sections were risk management, legal aspects, alcohol policies, crowd management procedures, emergency and medical plan, parking and traffic control, demographics of the university's home football stadium, demographics of the stadium manager, and personal information. All items related to the football operations of the subject's football stadium. The questionnaire was administered via the Internet and the questionnaire hyperlink was e-mailed to the stadium managers of all 117 NCAA Division I-A member football stadiums. Seventy stadium managers returned the completed questionnaire for a 60% response rate. All of the questionnaires were usable. Overall, stadiums that hosted NCAA Division I-A football games in 2004 are following the risk management procedures that are recommended in the literature. Undoubtedly, a major influence on this is the attention that risk management received after the terrorist attacks on United States soil on September 11, 2001. However, many risk management practices are in place, not necessarily to guard against terrorist attacks but for the general safety of patrons from everyday accidents and incidents. The research found that it is very difficult to stereotype stadiums based on demographic features of the stadium. The findings did show that stadium capacity had the most relationships with risk management practices. More sound risk management practices were performed by larger stadiums than smaller stadiums. Finally, the most notable finding of the research in regards to the stadium manager demographics is the lack of diversity among persons responsible for operating collegiate football stadiums. Stadium managers are mostly Caucasian males. Another interesting finding was the degrees that stadium managers held. Younger stadium managers were more likely to have a degree in sport management.
Risk Management, NCAA Division I-A, Football Stadiums
Date of Defense
December 2, 2005.
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Sport Management, Recreation Management, and Physical Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education.
Includes bibliographical references.
E. Newton Jackson, Jr., Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Aubrey Kent, Professor Co-Directing Dissertation; Beverly Bower, Outside Committee Member; Charles Imwold, Committee Member; Charles A. Morris, Committee Member.
Florida State University
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