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Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.

Title: Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.
Name(s): Okbay, Aysu, author
Beauchamp, Jonathan P, author
Fontana, Mark Alan, author
Lee, James J, author
Pers, Tune H, author
Rietveld, Cornelius A, author
Turley, Patrick, author
Chen, Guo-Bo, author
Emilsson, Valur, author
Meddens, S Fleur W, author
Oskarsson, Sven, author
Pickrell, Joseph K, author
Thom, Kevin, author
Timshel, Pascal, author
de Vlaming, Ronald, author
Abdellaoui, Abdel, author
Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S, author
Bacelis, Jonas, author
Baumbach, Clemens, author
Bjornsdottir, Gyda, author
Brandsma, Johannes H, author
Pina Concas, Maria, author
Derringer, Jaime, author
Furlotte, Nicholas A, author
Galesloot, Tessel E, author
Girotto, Giorgia, author
Gupta, Richa, author
Hall, Leanne M, author
Harris, Sarah E, author
Hofer, Edith, author
Horikoshi, Momoko, author
Huffman, Jennifer E, author
Kaasik, Kadri, author
Kalafati, Ioanna P, author
Karlsson, Robert, author
Kong, Augustine, author
Lahti, Jari, author
van der Lee, Sven J, author
deLeeuw, Christiaan, author
Lind, Penelope A, author
Lindgren, Karl-Oskar, author
Liu, Tian, author
Mangino, Massimo, author
Marten, Jonathan, author
Mihailov, Evelin, author
Miller, Michael B, author
van der Most, Peter J, author
Oldmeadow, Christopher, author
Payton, Antony, author
Pervjakova, Natalia, author
Peyrot, Wouter J, author
Qian, Yong, author
Raitakari, Olli, author
Rueedi, Rico, author
Salvi, Erika, author
Schmidt, Börge, author
Schraut, Katharina E, author
Shi, Jianxin, author
Smith, Albert V, author
Poot, Raymond A, author
St Pourcain, Beate, author
Teumer, Alexander, author
Thorleifsson, Gudmar, author
Verweij, Niek, author
Vuckovic, Dragana, author
Wellmann, Juergen, author
Westra, Harm-Jan, author
Yang, Jingyun, author
Zhao, Wei, author
Zhu, Zhihong, author
Alizadeh, Behrooz Z, author
Amin, Najaf, author
Bakshi, Andrew, author
Baumeister, Sebastian E, author
Biino, Ginevra, author
Bønnelykke, Klaus, author
Boyle, Patricia A, author
Campbell, Harry, author
Cappuccio, Francesco P, author
Davies, Gail, author
De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel, author
Deloukas, Panos, author
Demuth, Ilja, author
Ding, Jun, author
Eibich, Peter, author
Eisele, Lewin, author
Eklund, Niina, author
Evans, David M, author
Faul, Jessica D, author
Feitosa, Mary F, author
Forstner, Andreas J, author
Gandin, Ilaria, author
Gunnarsson, Bjarni, author
Halldórsson, Bjarni V, author
Harris, Tamara B, author
Heath, Andrew C, author
Hocking, Lynne J, author
Holliday, Elizabeth G, author
Homuth, Georg, author
Horan, Michael A, author
Hottenga, Jouke-Jan, author
de Jager, Philip L, author
Joshi, Peter K, author
Jugessur, Astanand, author
Kaakinen, Marika A, author
Kähönen, Mika, author
Kanoni, Stavroula, author
Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa, author
Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M, author
Kolcic, Ivana, author
Koskinen, Seppo, author
Kraja, Aldi T, author
Kroh, Martin, author
Kutalik, Zoltan, author
Latvala, Antti, author
Launer, Lenore J, author
Lebreton, Maël P, author
Levinson, Douglas F, author
Lichtenstein, Paul, author
Lichtner, Peter, author
Liewald, David C M, author
, author
Loukola, Anu, author
Madden, Pamela A, author
Mägi, Reedik, author
Mäki-Opas, Tomi, author
Marioni, Riccardo E, author
Marques-Vidal, Pedro, author
Meddens, Gerardus A, author
McMahon, George, author
Meisinger, Christa, author
Meitinger, Thomas, author
Milaneschi, Yusplitri, author
Milani, Lili, author
Montgomery, Grant W, author
Myhre, Ronny, author
Nelson, Christopher P, author
Nyholt, Dale R, author
Ollier, William E R, author
Palotie, Aarno, author
Paternoster, Lavinia, author
Pedersen, Nancy L, author
Petrovic, Katja E, author
Porteous, David J, author
Räikkönen, Katri, author
Ring, Susan M, author
Robino, Antonietta, author
Rostapshova, Olga, author
Rudan, Igor, author
Rustichini, Aldo, author
Salomaa, Veikko, author
Sanders, Alan R, author
Sarin, Antti-Pekka, author
Schmidt, Helena, author
Scott, Rodney J, author
Smith, Blair H, author
Smith, Jennifer A, author
Staessen, Jan A, author
Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth, author
Strauch, Konstantin, author
Terracciano, Antonio, author
Tobin, Martin D, author
Ulivi, Sheila, author
Vaccargiu, Simona, author
Quaye, Lydia, author
van Rooij, Frank J A, author
Venturini, Cristina, author
Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E, author
Völker, Uwe, author
Völzke, Henry, author
Vonk, Judith M, author
Vozzi, Diego, author
Waage, Johannes, author
Ware, Erin B, author
Willemsen, Gonneke, author
Attia, John R, author
Bennett, David A, author
Berger, Klaus, author
Bertram, Lars, author
Bisgaard, Hans, author
Boomsma, Dorret I, author
Borecki, Ingrid B, author
Bültmann, Ute, author
Chabris, Christopher F, author
Cucca, Francesco, author
Cusi, Daniele, author
Deary, Ian J, author
Dedoussis, George V, author
van Duijn, Cornelia M, author
Eriksson, Johan G, author
Franke, Barbara, author
Franke, Lude, author
Gasparini, Paolo, author
Gejman, Pablo V, author
Gieger, Christian, author
Grabe, Hans-Jörgen, author
Gratten, Jacob, author
Groenen, Patrick J F, author
Gudnason, Vilmundur, author
van der Harst, Pim, author
Hayward, Caroline, author
Hinds, David A, author
Hoffmann, Wolfgang, author
Hyppönen, Elina, author
Iacono, William G, author
Jacobsson, Bo, author
Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta, author
Jöckel, Karl-Heinz, author
Kaprio, Jaakko, author
Kardia, Sharon L R, author
Lehtimäki, Terho, author
Lehrer, Steven F, author
Magnusson, Patrik K E, author
Martin, Nicholas G, author
McGue, Matt, author
Metspalu, Andres, author
Pendleton, Neil, author
Penninx, Brenda W J H, author
Perola, Markus, author
Pirastu, Nicola, author
Pirastu, Mario, author
Polasek, Ozren, author
Posthuma, Danielle, author
Power, Christine, author
Province, Michael A, author
Samani, Nilesh J, author
Schlessinger, David, author
Schmidt, Reinhold, author
Sørensen, Thorkild I A, author
Spector, Tim D, author
Stefansson, Kari, author
Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur, author
Thurik, A Roy, author
Timpson, Nicholas J, author
Tiemeier, Henning, author
Tung, Joyce Y, author
Uitterlinden, André G, author
Vitart, Veronique, author
Vollenweider, Peter, author
Weir, David R, author
Wilson, James F, author
Wright, Alan F, author
Conley, Dalton C, author
Krueger, Robert F, author
Davey Smith, George, author
Hofman, Albert, author
Laibson, David I, author
Medland, Sarah E, author
Meyer, Michelle N, author
Yang, Jian, author
Johannesson, Magnus, author
Visscher, Peter M, author
Esko, Tõnu, author
Koellinger, Philipp D, author
Cesarini, David, author
Benjamin, Daniel J, author
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Journal Article
Date Issued: 2016-05-26
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
Identifier: FSU_pmch_27225129 (IID), 10.1038/nature17671 (DOI), PMC4883595 (PMCID), 27225129 (RID), 27225129 (EID), nature17671 (PII)
Grant Number: R01 DA036216, RF1 AG015819, U01 AG009740, MC_UU_12013/3, MC_QA137853, R01 AG017917, MR/J012165/1, MR/K026992/1, P2C HD047879, P30 AG010161, MC_UU_12013/1, MC_UU_12013/4, CZD/16/6/4, MC_PC_U127561128, T32-AG000186-23, P01-AG005842, R01-AG042568, P30-AG012810, P01 AG005842, R37 DA005147, P30 AG012810, R01 AG042568, T32 AG000186, BB/F022441/1, P01-AG005842-20S2, 647648
Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at
Subject(s): Alzheimer Disease/genetics
Bipolar Disorder/genetics
Computational Biology
Educational Status
Gene Expression Regulation/genetics
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genome-Wide Association Study
Molecular Sequence Annotation
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
United Kingdom
Persistent Link to This Record:
Owner Institution: FSU
Is Part Of: Nature.
Issue: iss. 7604, vol. 533

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Okbay, A., Beauchamp, J. P., Fontana, M. A., Lee, J. J., Pers, T. H., Rietveld, C. A., … Benjamin, D. J. (2016). Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. Nature. Retrieved from