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### Active Control of High-Speed Free Jets Using High-Frequency Excitation

 Title: Name(s): Active Control of High-Speed Free Jets Using High-Frequency Excitation. 8 views 5 downloads Upadhyay, Puja, authorAlvi, Farrukh S., professor directing dissertationHussaini, M. Yousuff, university representativeKumar, Rajan, (Professor of Mechanical Engineering), committee memberClark, Jonathan E., committee memberGustavsson, Jonas, committee member Florida State University, degree granting institution College of Engineering, degree granting college Department of Mechanical Engineering, degree granting department text TextDoctoral Thesis monographic 2017 Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida computeronline resource 1 online resource (332 pages) English Control of aerodynamic noise generated by high-performance jet engines continues to remain a serious problem for the aviation community. Intense low frequency noise produced by large-scale coherent structures is known to dominate acoustic radiation in the aft angles. A tremendous amount of research effort has been dedicated towards the investigation of many passive and active flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise, while keeping performance penalties to a minimum. Unsteady excitation, an active control technique, seeks to modify acoustic sources in the jet by leveraging the naturally-occurring flow instabilities in the shear layer. While excitation at a lower range of frequencies that scale with the dynamics of large-scale structures, has been attempted by a number of studies, effects at higher excitation frequencies remain severely unexplored. One of the major limitations stems from the lack of appropriate flow control devices that have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in turbulent flows, especially at higher speeds. To this end, the current study seeks to fulfill two main objectives. First, the design and characterization of two high-frequency fluidic actuators ($25$ and $60$ kHz) are undertaken, where the target frequencies are guided by the dynamics of high-speed free jets. Second, the influence of high-frequency forcing on the aeroacoustics of high-speed jets is explored in some detail by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 ($Re_D = 5\times10^5$) free jet flow field. Subsequently, these findings are directly compared to the results of steady microjet injection experiments performed in the same rig and to prior jet noise control studies, where available. Finally, limited acoustic measurements were also performed by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuators on jets at higher Mach numbers, including shock containing jets, and elevated temperatures. Using lumped element modeling as an initial guide, the current work expands on the previous development of low-frequency (2-8 kHz) Resonance Enhanced Micro-actuators (REM) to design actuators that are capable of producing high amplitude pulses at much higher frequencies. Extensive benchtop characterization, using acoustic measurements as well as optical diagnostics using a high resolution micro-schlieren setup, is employed to characterize the flow properties and dynamic response of these actuators. The actuators produced high-amplitude output a range of frequencies, $20.3-27.8$ kHz and $54.8-78.2$ kHz, respectively. In addition to providing information on the actuator flow physics and performances at various operating conditions, the benchtop study serves to develop relatively easy-to-integrate, high-frequency actuators for active control of high-speed jets for noise reduction. Following actuator characterization studies, the nominally 25 kHz ($St_{DF} \approx 2.2$) actuators are implemented on a Mach 0.9 free jet flow field. Eight actuators are azimuthally distributed at the nozzle exit to excite the initial shear layer at frequencies that are approximately an order of magnitude higher compared to the \textit{jet preferred frequency}, $St_P \approx 0.2-0.3$. The influence of control on the mean and turbulent characteristics of the jet, especially the developing shear layer, is examined in great detail using planar and stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Examination of cross-stream velocity profiles revealed that actuation leads to strong, spatially coherent streamwise vortex pairs which in turn significantly modify the mean flow field, resulting in a prominently undulated shear layer. These vortices grow as they convect downstream, enhancing local entrainment and significantly thickening the initial shear layer. Azimuthal inhomogeneity introduced in the jet shear layer is also evident in the simultaneous redistribution and reduction of peak turbulent fluctuations in the cross-plane near the nozzle exit. Further downstream, control results in a global suppression of turbulence intensities for all axial locations, also evidenced by a longer potential core and overall reduced jet spreading. The resulting impact on the noise signature is estimated via far-field acoustic measurements. Noise reduction was observed at low to moderate frequencies for all observation angles. Direct comparison of these results with that of steady microjet injection revealed some notable differences in the initial development of streamwise vorticity and the redistribution of peak turbulence in the azimuthal direction. However, despite significant differences in the near nozzle aerodynamics, the downstream evolution of the jet appeared to approach near similar conditions with both high-frequency and steady microjet injection. Moreover, the impact on far-field noise was also comparable between the two injection methods as well as with others reported in the literature. Finally, for jets at higher Mach numbers and elevated temperatures, the effect of control was observed to vary with jet conditions. While the impact of the two control mechanisms were fairly comparable on non-shock containing jets, high-frequency forcing was observed to produce significantly larger reductions in screech and broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) at select under-expanded jet conditions. The observed variations in control effects at different jet conditions call for further investigation. FSU_FALL2017_Upadhyay_fsu_0071E_14154 (IID) A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Fall Semester 2017. September 19, 2017. Active Flow Control, Actuators, High-frequency excitation, High-speed Jets, Jet Noise Control, Particle Image Velocimetry Includes bibliographical references. Farrukh Alvi, Professor Directing Dissertation; M. Yousu Hussaini, University Representative; Rajan Kumar, Committee Member; Jonathan Clark, Committee Member; Jonas P. R. Gustavsson, Committee Member. AcousticsAerospace engineering http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_FALL2017_Upadhyay_fsu_0071E_14154 FSU