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Expanding the developmental models of writing

Title: Expanding the developmental models of writing: A direct and indirect effects model of developmental writing (DIEW).
Name(s): Kim, Young-Suk Grace, author
Schatschneider, Christopher, author
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Journal Article
Date Issued: 2017-01-01
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: We investigated direct and indirect effects of component skills on writing (DIEW) using data from 193 children in Grade 1. In this model, working memory was hypothesized to be a foundational cognitive ability for language and cognitive skills as well as transcription skills, which, in turn, contribute to writing. Foundational oral language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) and higher-order cognitive skills (inference and theory of mind) were hypothesized to be component skills of text generation (i.e., discourse-level oral language). Results from structural equation modeling largely supported a complete mediation model among four variations of the DIEW model. Discourse-level oral language, spelling, and handwriting fluency completely mediated the relations of higher-order cognitive skills, foundational oral language, and working memory to writing. Moreover, language and cognitive skills had both direct and indirect relations to discourse-level oral language. Total effects, including direct and indirect effects, were substantial for discourse-level oral language (.46), working memory (.43), and spelling (.37), followed by vocabulary (.19), handwriting (.17), theory of mind (.12), inference (.10), and grammatical knowledge (.10). The model explained approximately 67% of variance in writing quality. These results indicate that multiple language and cognitive skills make direct and indirect contributions, and it is important to consider both direct and indirect pathways of influences when considering skills that are important to writing.
Identifier: FSU_pmch_28260812 (IID), 10.1037/edu0000129 (DOI), PMC5330285 (PMCID), 28260812 (RID), 28260812 (EID)
Keywords: Cognitive, Developmental model, Direct, Indirect, Not-so-simple view of writing, Oral language, Simple view of writing
Grant Number: P50 HD052120
Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at
Persistent Link to This Record:
Owner Institution: FSU
Is Part Of: Journal of educational psychology.
Issue: iss. 1, vol. 109

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Kim, Y. -S. G., & Schatschneider, C. (2017). Expanding the developmental models of writing: A direct and indirect effects model of developmental writing (DIEW). Journal Of Educational Psychology. Retrieved from