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balancing act

Title: A balancing act: heterochromatin protein 1a and the Polycomb group coordinate their levels to silence chromatin in Drosophila.
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Name(s): Cabrera, Janel R, author
Olcese, Ursula, author
Horabin, Jamila I, author
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Journal Article
Text
Date Issued: 2015-04-30
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: The small non-histone protein Heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) plays a vital role in packaging chromatin, most notably in forming constitutive heterochromatin at the centromeres and telomeres. A second major chromatin regulating system is that of the Polycomb/trithorax groups of genes which, respectively, maintain the repressed/activated state of euchromatin. Recent analyses suggest they affect the expression of a multitude of genes, beyond the homeotics whose alteration in expression lead to their initial discovery. Our data suggest that early in Drosophila development, HP1a collaborates with the Polycomb/trithorax groups of proteins to regulate gene expression and that the two chromatin systems do not act separately as convention describes. HP1a affects the levels of both the Polycomb complexes and RNA polymerase II at promoters, as assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Deposition of both the repressive (H3K27me3) and activating (H3K4me3) marks promoted by the Polycomb/trithorax group genes at gene promoters is affected. Additionally, depending on which parent contributes the null mutation of the HP1a gene, the levels of the H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 silencing marks at both promoters and heterochromatin are different. Changes in levels of the H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 repressive marks show a mostly reciprocal nature. The time around the mid-blastula transition, when the zygotic genome begins to be actively transcribed, appears to be a transition/decision point for setting the levels. We find that HP1a, which is normally critical for the formation of constitutive heterochromatin, also affects the generation of the epigenetic marks of the Polycomb/trithorax groups of proteins, chromatin modifiers which are key to maintaining gene expression in euchromatin. At gene promoters, deposition of both the repressive H3K27me3 and activating H3K4me3 marks of histone modifications shows a dependence on HP1a. Around the mid-blastula transition, when the zygotic genome begins to be actively transcribed, a pivotal decision for the level of silencing appears to take place. This is also when the embryo organizes its genome into heterochromatin and euchromatin. A balance between the HP1a and Polycomb group silencing systems appears to be set for the chromatin types that each system will primarily regulate.
Identifier: FSU_pmch_25954320 (IID), 10.1186/s13072-015-0010-z (DOI), PMC4423169 (PMCID), 25954320 (RID), 25954320 (EID), 10 (PII)
Keywords: Euchromatin, Gene expression, Heterochromatin, Heterochromatin protein 1a, Histone methylation, Polycomb
Grant Number: P40 OD018537, R01 GM085165
Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4423169.
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_pmch_25954320
Owner Institution: FSU
Is Part Of: Epigenetics & chromatin.
1756-8935
Issue: vol. 8

Choose the citation style.
Cabrera, J. R., Olcese, U., & Horabin, J. I. (2015). A balancing act: heterochromatin protein 1a and the Polycomb group coordinate their levels to silence chromatin in Drosophila. Epigenetics & Chromatin. Retrieved from http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_pmch_25954320