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Modeling the development of written language.

Title: Modeling the development of written language.
Name(s): Wagner, Richard K, author
Puranik, Cynthia S, author
Foorman, Barbara, author
Foster, Elizabeth, author
Wilson, Laura Gehron, author
Tschinkel, Erika, author
Kantor, Patricia Thatcher, author
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Text
Date Issued: 2011-02-01
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of written composition and handwriting fluency were tested using confirmatory factor analysis of writing samples provided by first- and fourth-grade students. For both groups, a five-factor model provided the best fit to the data. Four of the factors represented aspects of written composition: macro-organization (use of top sentence and number and ordering of ideas), productivity (number and diversity of words used), complexity (mean length of T-unit and syntactic density), and spelling and punctuation. The fifth factor represented handwriting fluency. Handwriting fluency was correlated with written composition factors at both grades. The magnitude of developmental differences between first grade and fourth grade expressed as effect sizes varied for variables representing the five constructs: large effect sizes were found for productivity and handwriting fluency variables; moderate effect sizes were found for complexity and macro-organization variables; and minimal effect sizes were found for spelling and punctuation variables.
Identifier: FSU_pmch_22228924 (IID), 10.1007/s11145-010-9266-7 (DOI), PMC3249727 (PMCID), 22228924 (RID), 22228924 (EID)
Grant Number: P50 HD052120, P50 HD052120-04, P50 HD052120-05
Publication Note: This NIH-funded author manuscript originally appeared in PubMed Central at
Persistent Link to This Record:
Owner Institution: FSU
Is Part Of: Reading and writing.
Issue: iss. 2, vol. 24

Choose the citation style.
Wagner, R. K., Puranik, C. S., Foorman, B., Foster, E., Wilson, L. G., Tschinkel, E., & Kantor, P. T. (2011). Modeling the development of written language. Reading And Writing. Retrieved from