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Colloid and Surfactant Transport Modeling Through Agricultural Soil

Title: Colloid and Surfactant Transport Modeling Through Agricultural Soil.
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Name(s): Patil, Sandip R. (Sandip Raman), 1981-, author
Chen, Gang, professor directing dissertation
Ordóñez, Juan Carlos, university representative
Clark, Clayton, II, committee member
Watts, Michael, committee member
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, degree granting department
Florida State University, degree granting institution
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Text
Issuance: monographic
Date Issued: 2012
Publisher: Florida State University
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Florida
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) was designed just after the U.S. Geological was established. The primary objective of the NAWQA was to understand the key processes controlling contaminant fate and transport into the Nation's water resources. In particular, wide use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural field can impact on the quality of surface and ground waters. Contaminants can be carried to the water bodies by several ways. In colloid-facilitated transport process colloidal particles serves as a transport media for the contaminants. Colloid release from the agricultural soil under unsaturated conditions is controlled by the hydrodynamic force, capillary force and electrostatic force that is determined by the solution chemistry in terms of solution ionic strength and pH. In this research, colloid release from the agricultural soil was investigated using an intact soil column collected from an agricultural site in Gadsden County of Florida. Colloid release was monitored and the colloid release curve was simulated using an implicit, finite-difference scheme to obtain the colloid release coefficient. It was found that the hydrodynamic force and electrostatic force overcame the capillary force under the experimental conditions of this research and consequently, colloids were released. For the colloid release, solution chemistry played a key role by controlling the colloid repulsive electrostatic force within the pore system. Colloid release exponentially decreased with the increase of solution ionic strength and increased with the increase of solution pH. Colloid release was finally found to be correlated to the colloid repulsive electrostatic force within the pore system, i.e., the greater the repulsive electrostatic force, more colloids were released. In situ colloid mobilization and transport has been studied under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. In saturated conditions, the controlling parameters are solution ionic strength and pH. Colloid mobilization and transport have been modeled by the advection-dispersion equation with a first-order colloid release. The inverse version of these models can provide a platform to estimate transport parameters based on transport observations. In this research, we taken the advantages of existing contaminants transport models by fully utilizing them to investigate colloid interactions with the surrounding environment and provide parameter constraints for colloid transport modeling applications under saturated conditions. In natural systems, colloids present a potential health risk due to their propensity to associate with contaminants or in the case of certain biological colloids, inherent pathogenic nature. Although colloidal interactions have been studied for many years and much has been learned about the physical and chemical processes that control colloid retention, there still remains significant uncertainty about the processes that govern colloid release. The aim of this study was to investigate the release of in situ colloids as a function of soil depth. Colloid release from intact agricultural soil columns with variable length was investigated. Colloid release curves were simulated using an implicit, finite-difference scheme and colloid release rate coefficient was found to be an exponential function of the soil depth. The simulated results demonstrated that transport parameters were not consistent along the depth of the soil profile. Wetting agents wet hydrophobic soil by lowering the cohesive and/or adhesive surface tension, which allows the water to spread out more evenly and allows for better penetration into the hydrophobic soils. While enhancing water penetration, wetting agent applications may bring adverse impact on the soil and groundwater at the same time. The residual organic phase in the soil pores poses a long-term source of groundwater contamination. After use, residual wetting agents and their degradation products are discharged to groundwater or directly to surface waters, then dispersed into different environmental compartments. In order to assess their environmental risks, we need to understand the distribution, behavior, fate and biological effects of these surfactants in the environment. This research was designed to investigate the application of nonionic wetting agents in agricultural soils. Performance of nonionic surfactants in intact soil columns collected from agricultural soils was explored and related to the soil and wetting agent properties. In addition, the impact of the organic concentration of wetting agent fate and transport was investigated. The transport of wetting agents in the agricultural soil columns was simulated using the proposed transport models and subsequently, the effect of organic compounds on wetting agent transport was quantified.
Identifier: FSU_migr_etd-5098 (IID)
Submitted Note: A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2012.
Date of Defense: March 26, 2012.
Keywords: Colloid Surfactant Transport Modeling
Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references.
Advisory Committee: Gang Chen, Professor Directing Dissertation; Juan Carlos Ordóñez, University Representative; Clayton Clark, II, Committee Member; Michael Watts, Committee Member.
Subject(s): Civil engineering
Environmental engineering
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_migr_etd-5098
Owner Institution: FSU

Choose the citation style.
Patil, S. R. (S. R. ). (2012). Colloid and Surfactant Transport Modeling Through Agricultural Soil. Retrieved from http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_migr_etd-5098