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Comparing the Hormone, Metabolic, and Lipid Profiles of Reproductive Age Women and the Effects of Dried Apple Supplementation and Resistance Exercise in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Title: Comparing the Hormone, Metabolic, and Lipid Profiles of Reproductive Age Women and the Effects of Dried Apple Supplementation and Resistance Exercise in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
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Name(s): Hernandez-Escareno, Adali, author
Spicer, Maria T., professor directing thesis
McGee, Daniel, university representative
Levenson, Cathy, committee member
Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Science, degree granting department
Florida State University, degree granting institution
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Text
Issuance: monographic
Date Issued: 2010
Publisher: Florida State University
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Florida
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Purpose: The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the androgen and lipid profiles, metabolic syndrome prevalence as well as insulin and HOMA-IR levels in women with and without PCOS as risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and (2) to study the effects of apple supplementation and resistance exercise on androgen levels, lipid levels, body weight, and metabolic syndrome (MetX) risk factors in women with PCOS. Methods: Baseline data evaluated 22 women with PCOS and 22 height-weight matched controls. Of the 22 women with PCOS, 16 completed the intervention and because of the high dropout rate controls were not included in the intervention. In a 2x2 factorial design using dried apples and resistance exercise, control supplement was 70g of Kellogg's Frosted Mini-Wheats because of similar macronutrient content. Exercise consisted of full body routines twice a week, using 3 sets of 12 repetitions max (12 RM). SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0 software was used to determine descriptive statistics, t-tests, Pearson and Spearman correlations, and one-way ANOVA and factorial ANOVA. Results: At baseline, there was no significant difference between women with PCOS and the controls in age, weight, BMI, Insulin, HOMA-IR, and total T. However, the women with PCOS had significantly higher free T levels and lower SHBG concentrations when compared to the controls (p<0.05). The control women had a more atherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL-C levels than the women with PCOS (p<0.05). The women with PCOS tended to have higher WC than the controls (p<0.1). TG and blood pressure were not significantly different. MetX prevalence was higher (18%) in the controls than the women with PCOS (4.54%). Pearson correlations revealed significant positive correlations between BMI and Insulin/HOMA-IR as well as WC and Insulin/HOMA-IR in all women of this study. Spearman correlation analysis revealed a tendency for FAI and BMI to rank positively in the women with PCOS only (p<0.1). In all women of this study, FAI levels were negatively correlated with SHBG, concurrent to published literature (p<0.001). Intervention results include the following: There was a significant increase in SHBG levels in the women supplemented with apples only (p<0.01) as well as a significant decrease in FAI (p<0.05). Women supplemented with dried apples and participating in the resistance exercise program resulted in significant decreases in total T only (p<0.05) (n=6). Fasting blood glucose was significantly increased in the cereal groups (n=6) after the intervention period and was associated with the higher glycemic index found in the cereal when compared to the apple treatment groups (p<0.05). Increases of vii total cholesterol and LDL-C were seen in the combination therapy and in the control group (no apples-no exercise) (p<0.05). In accordance with other published literature, exercise groups had a tendency to increase HDL-C after the intervention (p<0.1). Conclusion: The women without PCOS were at an increased risk for developing CVD when compared to the women with PCOS because of the more atherogenic lipid profile, higher glucose levels, and higher MetX prevalence presented in this population. Intervention of apple supplementation and resistance exercise did not ameliorate MetX symptoms, insulin or HOMA-IR, however supplementation showed potential for decreasing total T levels and increasing SHBG concentrations in women with PCOS. The small sample size may have increased variability in this study and a larger sample size is needed to evaluate the effects of apple supplementation and resistance exercise in women.
Identifier: FSU_migr_etd-4086 (IID)
Submitted Note: A Thesis submitted to the Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Science in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.
Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2010.
Date of Defense: November 20, 2009.
Keywords: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Metabolic Syndrome, Cardiovascular Disease, Apple Polyphenols, Testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references.
Advisory Committee: Maria T. Spicer, Professor Directing Thesis; Daniel McGee, University Representative; Cathy Levenson, Committee Member.
Subject(s): Food
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_migr_etd-4086
Owner Institution: FSU

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Hernandez-Escareno, A. (2010). Comparing the Hormone, Metabolic, and Lipid Profiles of Reproductive Age Women and the Effects of Dried Apple Supplementation and Resistance Exercise in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Retrieved from http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_migr_etd-4086