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Mitigation of Landfill Methane Emissions from Passive Vents by Use of Oxidizing Biofilters

Title: Mitigation of Landfill Methane Emissions from Passive Vents by Use of Oxidizing Biofilters.
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Name(s): Morales, Jose J., author
Abichou, Tarek, professor directing thesis
Chanton, Jeff, committee member
Hilton, Amy B. Chan, committee member
Tawfiq, Kamal S., committee member
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, degree granting department
Florida State University, degree granting institution
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Text
Issuance: monographic
Date Issued: 2006
Publisher: Florida State University
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Florida
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Decay of waste within landfills is a contributing source to the greenhouse effect due to the production of methane. Larger landfills tend to have gas collection systems, which collect and convert gas into energy or flare it. Older and smaller landfills, however, usually vent this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere through passive vents. This study focuses on the attenuation of methane gas from these passive vents through the use of biofilters containing methanotrophic bacteria. These methanotrophic bacteria can oxidize methane into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass. Two biofilter designs were explored in this study. The vertical biofilter design has a methane inflow near the bottom which emits the methane upward through the filter medium in which the methanotrophic bacteria reside. The radial biofilter design has a methane inflow source imbedded in the center, vertically, in the filter medium, which emits the methane horizontally. The purpose of the radial design was to increase methane oxidation by increasing the surface area, thus increasing oxygen penetration. The surface area of the radial design was 1.212 m2 compared to 0.264 m2 of the vertical filter design. Biofilter surface area proved to be a factor in the oxidation of passively vented landfill methane. Although the two filter designs achieved a similar oxidation average for the study period, the radial biofilter design obtained a much higher removal rate at a higher input than that of the vertical design. The better performance of the radial biofilters was due to greater oxygen penetration as verified by probe gas profiles. This increase in oxygen penetration was directly linked to the larger surface area, which had a lower influx than that of the smaller surface area of the vertical design when having the same methane input. This study also tested the use of two different biofilter media mixtures for oxidizing methane. The mixtures were a combination of recycled tire chips and compost, and a combination of peanut packing foam and compost. The purpose of mixing the compost with the tire chips or the peanut foam was to hopefully increase oxygen penetration and thus, methane oxidation. The study proved that there was statistically no difference in performance between the two media types. Averages of the study period showed a nearly equal methane oxidation average and methane removal rate. Air temperature, media temperature, and barometric pressure were recorded during testing events for the period of this study. There was an increase in average air temperature through out the study (this was due to a change in seasons, from winter to summer). Average methane outputs from the passive vents studied showed a decreasing pattern throughout the study. This decrease in methane output is due to a decrease in anaerobic decomposition because of the old age of the waste in the section of the landfill studied. It was concluded that there was a direct correlation between biofilter media temperature and methane oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. Average oxidation rates of 20% and higher were all within the range of 20-36°C. This temperature range agrees with published research (Visvanathan et al., 1999) that states that this is the optimal soil temperature for methanotrophs to oxidize methane. There was no direct correlation found between atmospheric pressure and landfill methane emissions from passive vents. This research established that the radial filter design was superior to that of the vertical design for methane oxidation. However, it is important to note that what led the radial design to have a superior performance over that of the vertical design was its increased oxygen penetration and lowered influx of gases due to its larger surface area. Thus, further research of these factors is imperative to ultimately making biofilters viable option for mitigating methane emissions from passively vented landfills.
Identifier: FSU_migr_etd-2276 (IID)
Submitted Note: A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Science.
Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2006.
Date of Defense: November 3, 2006.
Keywords: Landfill, Bio-Filters, Biofilters, Oxidation, Methane Oxidation, Mitigation, Methane Emissions
Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references.
Advisory Committee: Tarek Abichou, Professor Directing Thesis; Jeff Chanton, Committee Member; Amy B. Chan Hilton, Committee Member; Kamal S. Tawfiq, Committee Member.
Subject(s): Civil engineering
Environmental engineering
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_migr_etd-2276
Owner Institution: FSU

Choose the citation style.
Morales, J. J. (2006). Mitigation of Landfill Methane Emissions from Passive Vents by Use of Oxidizing Biofilters. Retrieved from http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_migr_etd-2276