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Content Analysis of Citations to J.C.R. Licklider's "Man-Computer Symbiosis," 1960 - 2001

Title: A Content Analysis of Citations to J.C.R. Licklider's "Man-Computer Symbiosis," 1960 - 2001: Diffusing the Intergalactic Network.
Name(s): Tomasello, Tami K., author
McDowell, Stephen D., professor directing dissertation
McClure, Charles R., outside committee member
Grisé, Philip J., committee member
Heald, Gary R., committee member
Opel, Andrew R., committee member
School of Communication, degree granting department
Florida State University, degree granting institution
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Text
Issuance: monographic
Date Issued: 2004
Publisher: Florida State University
Florida State University
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Florida
Physical Form: computer
online resource
Extent: 1 online resource
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: In 1960, J. C. R. Licklider, a well respected academician and professional, published an article entitled, "Man-Computer Symbiosis," in the fledgling research journal, the IRE (Institute of Radio Engineers) Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics. Reflecting back on its publication, Internet historians and Internet pioneers consistently cite the influential nature of the article in predicting the Internet's development. Using diffusion of innovations and the agenda-setting function as the theoretical framework, this study examines the influence network produced by a set of articles that cite Licklider from 1960-2001. The purpose of the study is to investigate the spread and influence of the ideas expressed in "Man-Computer Symbiosis" among published citing works in order to clarify our understanding about the article's contributions. Diffusion of innovations assists in explaining the spread of Licklider's ideas among citing authors. Agenda-setting offers insight into the events in Licklider's career that positioned him to publish "Man-Computer Symbiosis" while also identifying the salience of particular ideas over others in citing authors' works. Citation analysis and quantitative content analysis are combined to produce the data set. Citation analysis identifies the influence network for "Man-Computer Symbiosis," as represented by a set of citing authors. Quantitative content analysis examines the appearance of Licklider's ideas within the article citations. Study results indicate that of the 110 citing articles examined, the idea for symbiosis was most frequently cited. In general, the hierarchy of ideas presented in "Man-Computer Symbiosis" was reflected overall in the citing authors' hierarchy. The majority of citing authors were academicians affiliated with top-tier institutions who published in well-respected science/technology outlets. Citations to "Man-Computer Symbiosis" have remained relatively stable during a 40-year period, and the article continues to diffuse slowly but steadily among the research community.
Identifier: FSU_migr_etd-1285 (IID)
Submitted Note: A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Communication in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2004.
Date of Defense: March 15, 2004.
Keywords: Diffusion Of Innovations, Agenda-Setting, Academic Publishing, Licklider, Man-Computer Symbiosis, Internet, Content Analysis, Citation Analysis
Bibliography Note: Includes bibliographical references.
Advisory committee: Stephen D. McDowell, Professor Directing Dissertation; Charles R. McClure, Outside Committee Member; Philip J. Grisé, Committee Member; Gary R. Heald, Committee Member; Andrew R. Opel, Committee Member.
Subject(s): Communication
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Host Institution: FSU

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Tomasello, T. K. (2004). A Content Analysis of Citations to J.C.R. Licklider's "Man-Computer Symbiosis," 1960 - 2001: Diffusing the Intergalactic Network. Retrieved from